Sufism is concerned with faith and the worship which leads to God in religion. Another name of it is “Tariqat” or the “Tariqat of Muhammediye”. (1)
Professor Mehmed Ali Ayni (died in 1945) states in his article titled “Tariqats in Us”. (Perseverance 25th February 1337-1921) as follows:
“Islam is actually to confirm Allah and His Apostle and this confirmation was corroborated with an agreement later on. This treaty was concluded between Muslims and their Apostle on a dangerous and risky day. Believers held the Prophet’s hand, promised him not to leave Him. This sincere union saved them from that danger. Therefore, today a Muslim finds a person who is adorned with good manners and moral beauties, who is noble, spiritually distinguished, reliable and a man of his word, deserved love and confidence. Then, he repents all of sins and promises to refrain from telling lies, stealing and killing and from doing all forbidden acts in his presence. He shows Allah, His Apostle and one of the great persons who established a Tariqat as witnesses to renew and repeat the first treaty. This process means involving in the Tariqat, which is the inner side of Shariat, or else, it is not to eat soup in Tekke. Then, all the behaviors and actions of this person is under the observation and supervision of this great man to whom he has sworn fealty. I do not think that there is a more effective, useful and virtuous moral protocol than this in the world.”
(2) The Shariat of Muhammad is the Canonical Jurisprudence. The Knowledge of Shariat is also the knowledge of Jurisprudence. This knowledge is exterior not spiritual. This knowledge about faith is spiritual knowledge. The realities of Faith cannot be learnt with partial Intellect. Reason (mind) accepts them but it cannot solve them. The knowledge of Faith and all kinds of worship is the “Tariqat of Muhammad”.
Another example about swearing fealty and remembrance is as follows: (26)
Hz. Ali (K.V.), who is the gate of Knowledge, was sitting with the companions in the presence of the Most High Prophet: He requested saying: “O the Prophet of Allah, let my parents be sacrificed to you, please tell us the easiest, the nearest and the virtuous way for the slaves to reach Hz. Allah!”
Hz. Prophet (S.A.V.): “Ali, come closer! Place your knees near my knees, close your eyes, imagine my face and repeat what I say to you: “Fa’lem ennehu Lâ ilahe illallah”. They repeated three times. He told Ali to continue this Ziqr.
Hz. Prophet (S.A.V.) whispered the formula of unity “Lâ ilâhe illallah” into the ear of Hz. Abubaqr in the cave kneeled down while they were hiding during the Emigration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Hz. Abu Baqr had witnessed and been inspired by some revelations with the secret told in the hadith as: “the eyes have not seen, the ears have not heard it yet”.
Hz. Prophet Muhammad told Hz. Omar to pronounce “Lâ” first and then “ilâhe” separately and “illallah” together three times while he was telling them to continue this Ziqr.
Once, Hz. Prophet visited Hz. Osman to offer consolation for the loss (death) of the wife of Hz. Osman. He told him not to think about the worldly affairs and inspired “Lâ ilâhe illallah”.
There are two great heirs of the Tariqat of Muhammad:
Hz. Ali (K.V.) from His Household (Ahl-al Bayt)
a) Hz. Abu Baqr (r.a.) from His Companions.
The Tariqat of Muhammad continues with them because the Spirit, which is the Command of Allah, the great Mohammedan Spirit, does not die. The body dies, the Spirit is drawn to or hidden either in the World of Decree, in Melekut or in Barzah or in the canals or tunnels between Nasut and Melekut. Spirit is breathed into only human being and Spirit is Divine Light.
(2) “Ariflerin Menkibeleri, Menkib-ül Arifun, trans. By Tahsin Yazıcı, MEB Publications, pp. 708-709 Istanbul 1989, vol.3, p.405 from MEB Publications.
Mind and thinking (contemplation) are based on Spirit. A man who has no mind is like an animal that walks upright, so what makes a man human is the Spirit, which has a mind and reason.
Man is Mind-Reason-Spirit. The rest of him is flesh, bone and blood. Animals also have them. Spirit is drawn back to his original place in a dead body, as it will not function anymore.
a) Body returns to earth, which is the origin of it.
b) Spirit returns to the world of Decree (Command) to his origin.
The life (soul) in a body is just like the liveliness of an animal. It is a biological body consisted of cells. It is alive with water. They are the reflections of the living and active attributes of Allah.
The liveliness in human body does not come from the Spirit and Mind, which is the greatest sign of it, but it comes from water just like in animals and plants. And water is sacred. The holiness of water is confirmed with the verse of the Koran. Then, the attribute of life (liveliness) is hidden in water, but this has not been discovered by physical science yet. There is a hidden mystery in water. We accept water inorganic but Allah says: “All things are alive in water”. (Al-Zuqhruf, 11) He says that water is holy. The Positive Science may also solve this mystery and discover that water is not 100 percent inorganic.
We wish this mystery would be solved. Then, it will be learnt how organism-life passes into matter and the mystery of life-soul will be solved as mind is an attribute of Spirit. Mind and soul are not matter same as color is not matter. Color has no atoms like soul and mind and therefore color, mind and soul are not matter.
“Everything is alive with water.” (3)
Spirit, which is the decree of Allah, does not die. The Spirits of the Prophets and Saints, who are all pious, do not die and the pious are the righteous. They are the people who are close to Allah.
“The righteous dwell in gardens watered by running brooks, honorably seated in the presence of their Mighty King (Allah).”(Qamer, 54, 55)
The people of Sunnat and the adherents of Shiites have already accepted that the Spirit of Muhammad and Spiritual guidance is alive. They agree that the Spirits of the Prophets of Allah, the Spirits of Apostles, Saints and Believers are bright, alive and Divine.
Spirit does not die, the physical body dies. Allah says for the unbelievers who do not belong in this group:
“La yemutu fiha vela yahya-They neither live nor die there.” (Ta-Ha, 74)
They are not divine or bright but they are very vulgar and common. Their shapes changed from the shape of a human, they are in a very filthy condition and half alive. This is told in various chapters of the Koran. (4)
The Tariqat of Muhammad continues by means of the Divine Spirits of Pure People in this world through the Paths of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Abu Baqr. No force can stop this as it is related to Spirit. There is no physical force to stop this continuation.
(3) “Allah created every living thing with water.” (Al-Nur, 45)
(4) See Baqarah: 162, Nisa: 169, Mümin: 76, Bayyinah: 6
The subject of Tariqat of Muhammad is: Seyr-i Süluk (spiritual journey to Allah, progress on the spiritual path), the knowledge of the Realities of worships. Because, you cannot approach Allah without worship, remembrance, service and contemplation (divine contemplation of Muhammad).
The remembrance of Allah and the social intercourse (conversation) of Great Persons cause love and affection. All of them are possible with the love of Holy Muhammad and His Family (Ahl al Bayt). (May God comment and salute them!)
To love the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) is an obligatory duty. (5) May Allah enable us to love the Pure, the Divine Ahl al Bayt who are: “Hz. Ali, Hz. Fatimah, Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn” heartily and follow their path!
Their path and religious sect is based merely on the Book and Sunnat. The Tariqat of Muhammad and Sufism are sourced from the Book and Sunnat. It depends on Divine Message.
Tariqat means acquiring the Gnosis of Realities of Faith, first of all, making a contact with the Holy Spirit, remembering Allah and doing all kinds of worship such as ritual prayer, fasting, alms giving, helping the poor, pilgrimage and doing all kinds of good deeds, because Spirit-man is drawn near to his Lord and reaches his Lord through belief and worship.
“O serene Soul! Return to your Lord, joyful and pleasing in His sight.” (Al-Fajr, 28)
This is done through spiritual connection, remembrance and all kinds of good works (all kinds of worship) and with the Prayer moral support and favor of the Holy Spirit. (All of them are possible with the permission of the Lord: Bi İznillah) The spirit of the follower of God (aspirant) exalts to God, to Throne gradually step by step. His heart is improved and his self is purified.
Meanwhile Allah manifests this heart and the Divine Lights of the Prophets appear there. The spirit becomes holy as he is ascending. He rises to Melekut from Nasut, to Jeberut and Lahut. He annihilates in the Holy Spirit of the Religious Teacher, in the Spirit of the Prophet, in Allah and abides in Him (Fenafipir, Fenafiresul, Fenafillah and Bekabillah).
Union with God is done by the Person. He finds the Pure Existence, the Absolute Presence. He melts in Him. This is called: “Seyr-i illallah” until here, then “Seyr-i Fillah” begins and there is no end to journeying in Allah. He sees the Absolute Beauty and the Perfection in the Absolute Person.
He also contemplates them in the Divine Light of Muhammad, in the heart, in Natiqa and in Hu, in Sır-Secrecy and in the essence of the heart.
He dies before he dies (His self dies). (6) He learns Men Araf.
He becomes a Wise Person (Arif) with the mystery of the divine Hadith “He who knows his self knows his Lord.”
He learns and sees the mysteries and secrets of the Prophets with the Eye of Spirit. He shares the secrets of the Prophets and becomes an object and heir to the Knowledge and Mysteries of them.
Shortly, he becomes a Perfect Human while being immature.
The sign of them is first of all “honesty” and the good manners of Hz. Shah Imam Ali and the laudable moral qualities of the Prophet Muhammad. May God favor them on all of us: Edeb Ya Hu..
(5) “Such is God’s promise to His Servants who believe and do good works. Say (O Muhammad): For this, I demand of you no recompense. I ask you only to love My Family (My relatives), (Shura, 23)
(6) “Men arafe nefsehu, fekat arafe Rabbehu-He who knows his self, knows his Lord.”