1- Heavenly knowledge based on divine revelation.
This knowledge, which is heavenly, has two aspects: One of them is related to spiritual world, the other is juridical, about social life.
2- Physical Knowledge
This physical knowledge is based on experiments and observation. They are concrete, physical knowledge. People who know this knowledge are called a “scientist”.
Philosophy is the ideas or the opinions based on thinking. Philosophy is not a science. It is abstract. However, the thoughts of the philosopher are the discoveries of the philosopher himself. Thinking is never a science. They are called as philosophers but they are not called as scholars (Alim) anyway. Those who know the experimental knowledge are called as a scientist.
Yet, they are the scholars (scientists) who know the external knowledge. They have no relation with spirituality because these sciences are a kind of technical sciences.
The knowledge of those who know juridical knowledge we mentioned in the first item does not belong to themselves. This knowledge belongs to the Prophets. Those who know this knowledge are not called as scholars because they do not contribute anything to them or they have not made any discoveries. They are a kind of memorizers (one who learns by heart). Memorizers are not called as scholars. What they do is to transfer people the knowledge they memorized. Allah and the Prophets are the scholars of this heavenly Jurisprudence.
As for the philosophers, they are only thinkers. They are neither the Prophets, nor the scientists. They have no idea about spiritual sciences. For, spiritual sciences are related to abstract (inner, spiritual) world.
The scientists of external Jurisprudence, in other words, the memorizers who say “We are the Scholars of Sharia” cannot know the knowledge about the abstract world. That is to say, they do not know the spiritual world.
According to the Sacred Hadith: “The Scholars of My Nation are like the Prophets of Israelites,”, in order to be a “scholar” one must be like John the Baptist, Zachariah, Moses and David. These personalities knew spiritual, divine knowledge as well as Juridical Knowledge. If a scholar of Shariat is to be “a scholar”, he must know the spiritual knowledge like these personalities. The scholars that our Prophet implied are those who know this spiritual knowledge.
The scientists who know the sciences based on experiments cannot know the abstract (spiritual) world.
Only the Prophets are able to know the spiritual, divine, abstract world and some people or servants of Allah that He has chosen are also able to know it, such as Hodja Khidir and Veysel Karani.
Though they were not literate and Prophets, they knew Ledunni-Spiritual Knowledge. Many a select people among the People of the Prophet (S.A.V.) acquired divine knowledge (Ledunni). “PRAISE BE TO GOD! Peace be upon the His servants whom He has chosen!” (Naml, 59)
The name of this spiritual knowledge is the science of Ledunni, which means the knowledge revealed by Allah. As Ledunni knowledge comes to man from the Heavens, there is no way of learning it by reasoning. The person who knows this knowledge may be literate, “illiterate” or half-literate. However, this knowledge cannot be learnt by reasoning. This is the knowledge that comes to that person directly from God. THOSE WHO KNOW THE LEDUNNI SCIENCE are the real “scholars”. Another name of the Ledunni Science is Spiritual Knowledge-(Irfan). They are the real scholars and wise people. In the world of Tasawwuf (Mysticism), they are considered neither as a scholar nor as a wise person.
There is also a science and subject of Theology together with the Spiritual world (divinity, metaphysics, mysticism). The god of the religions based on divine books (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) is the sole God of Hz. Abraham. The God of these three religions is the Lord and the sole God of Hz. Abraham, who created the heavens and the earth.
The mind takes place for common sense in the contemplation of Hz. Abraham about sole God. For, Allah has become apparent with the Universe He created. A human being who has a mind cannot have the power to deny Allah because Hz. Abraham believed in Allah using his common sense. However, he had a great spiritual power and a superior intellect as well as having a power of Prophethood. He was one of the servants Allah had chosen. Allah knew that he was a Prophet although he did not know it himself before. He equipped him with superior qualities. Not every person can be Abraham and not every person can have the superior intellect of Hz. Abraham. Hz. Abraham, Hz. Ishmael, Hz. Isaac, Hz. Jacob, Hz. Moses, Hz. David, Hz. Jesus and other Prophets of Israelites declared that all of the Prophets between Adam and Abraham believed in the sole God, who is the Lord of the Universe. Hz. Muhammad also accepted the sole God, whom these personalities declared and he announced Him with all his sincerity.
Furthermore, Hz. Abraham, who lived 4300 years ago, did not have any divine messages. He did not know about Hz. Adam, Hz. Enoch, Hz. Noah and former Prophets who lived before him. The only power he had was the superior spirit and the common sense Allah had given him. By reasoning, he was only convinced that the Lord of the Universe was Allah. When he reached this judgment, Allah the Almighty showed him the Melekut (Supreme Dominion) of the Heavens and the earth. He entered the spiritual world by means of this. He also became one of the great divine personalities. The Glorious Koran declares that He opened the Melekut (Kingdom) of the Heavens and the earth to Abraham.
It is also a fact that there is no second Abraham who found Allah by reasoning and entered the world of Melekut (the spiritual world). Jews, Christians and Muslims all follow Abraham and they believe in the sole God of Hz. Abraham.
Man (if he is a sensible person) can understand and believe Allah because Allah is manifest. In one respect, Allah is half-concrete with the Universe He created because Allah is both seen (visible) and unseen (secret, abstract). However, the realities about divinity -spirituality- are completely abstract. The abstract realities are Spirits, Angels, genies, satan, paradise, hell etc. Mind or intellect can never solve them. Mind believes in them through the information these great Prophets, who are mentioned above, conveyed. This is the faith. Faith is to believe in the Prophets and to believe what they said. Mind is never able to know these abstract beings. This means to have confidence in these realities and the Prophets and to believe that the Prophets do not tell lies. This is faith.
Divine (spiritual world) cannot be known using mind or by reasoning. Mind is not able to solve the abstract world. The spiritual realities I mentioned above are directly believed. In this matter, the information that the Prophet has given is directly believed because these spiritual, abstract beings have been reported by divine messages like the Torah and the Koran.
Therefore, the people who know these realities are called as “Scholars and the Wise” who know spiritual, divine (inner) world. They are great mystics (Sufis). One need not study to learn these sciences because this knowledge cannot be acquired by studying. They can be acquired by the opening of the inner world and when it is seen personally.
I wrote these realities to help those who are interested in the matters I mentioned above. I leave this subject open to be discussed and I want them to explain if they know anything on this subject. We also would like to benefit from their opinions.
I implore help from Allah and His Prophet for those who seek the truth. I send all of them my kind regards.
Note: Those who are interested in these subjects may read our 99th article called “OUR ANCESTOR HAZRAT ABRAHAM ALEYHISSELAM AND “AKIL” (INTELLECT- HUMAN MIND)” in our website: www.varliktanveriler.com.
2ND November 2007
Note: This article was published in “Adıyaman’da Olay” Newspaper on 5th November 2007.