Reform Cannot Be Applied In Religon

In Islam, there are Ijtihat -Independent Judgement- (Mujtahid -Renewer-) and Tajdid- Reneval- (Mujaddid -Renowater-).

The following classification is done in religion:

The Fundamentals of religion (the principles of faith and belief), in other words, the doctrine-thought- side of religion,

Subdivisions of religion (The Islamic Canonical Jurisprudence, Islamic Law or Sharia side of religion)

Ijtihad is concerned with the juridical, juristic side of religion. The subject matter is, “Is there ijtihad in Islamic Jurisprudence or not?”

There is ijtihad in religion and this is confirmed with the authority the Prophet (S.A.V.) gave his Provincial Governor called Maaz. Emir el Muminin (the Commander of the Faithful- the title of the Caliphs) or the leader of believers and his governor can say their opinion or personal judgment in interpreting Islamic Laws if he meets a juridical matter that does not exist in the Koran and the Sunna. However, that leader or governor must know the Book and the Sunna very well, especially the verses concerning Sharia (Islamic Law) in the Koran (There are about 200 verses on this subject, the other over 600 verses are not related to Sharia-Islamic Canonical Jurisprudence). He should also know the Sunna of the Prophet very well; that is to say, how the Prophet (A.S. V.) applied these verses into practice and how he used his own decision depending on the Koran. He who does not know them well can be neither a Commander (Leader) nor a Governor in Islam. The authority of ijtihad is actually the right of the Umara (Leaders, governors). Can a scholar who is not from Umara convict his opinion or establish a religious precedent? In fact, he should not. A leader or governor consults or may consult the opinions of the experts in either legal matters or in other matters. He asks their advice and this is called “istishara- consultation”.

Yet, the judgment is made by the Commander of the Faithful or by His Governor. The responsibility is on the person who applies it but not on the person who states his scientific opinion. Fakih (an expert in the canon law of Islam) may express his opinion only, but he cannot make a judgment. Nevertheless, it was not exercised in this way. The experts of Islamic law made ijtihads and issued judgments. These mujtahids exercised ijtihads and they were approved by the commanders or by leaders of that time in different places. This has been the practice since Abbasids. Many ijtihads were done and the People of Sunna respected four of them: “Hanafi, Shafii, Maliki and Hanbeli”. The other ijtihads are Jafari, Zaydi, İsmaili and they are called as the Ijtihads of Shia and the Mujtahids of Shia. However, we must point out that Jafari Sadıq Hazretleri and Zaynal Abidin (R.A.) Hazretleri’s son Zayd Hazretleri did not establish a madhhab (school of Islamic Jurisprudence).The Shii Ulama (scholars) accepted some of their doctrines as evidence and they exercised ijtihads and used their names showing themselves belonging to these two great personalities. Therefore, each Ayatullahul Uzma (Great Ayatullah) in Iran is a mujtahid, which is the definition of the Professor of Islamic Canonical Jurisprudence in our country. Ijtihad continues in Shia. Ijtihad was stopped in countries such as Arabia, Pakistan, Indonesia and Turkey, due to the People of Sunnat do not accept any other mujtahids except these four mujtahids.

Now it is asked if there is ijtihad in Islam or not? The answer is, “Yes, there is.” Then, it has been continuing. This is the correct opinion. It must continue if there is and it absolutely exists. We have great professors of Islamic Law in Theology. Are they not able to exercise ijtihads? They must exercise ijtihads and they should do. Does anybody prevent them? There is no legal obstacle for them. Nevertheless, they are only expressing their opinions. This is wrong because ijtihad does not mean to express your views, it means to interpret law and declare your judgment (Rey).

Ijtihad is to make definite judgments again same as Abu Hanife, Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali Hazretleri. None of the independent Fakihs in the community of Sunni People has said, “I am a mujtahid, I can exercise ijtihad and I can make certain judgments” so far and they are still not saying this either. Nowadays there are discussions and debates on this matter in mass media (on televisions or newspapers).You cannot reach a conclusion through them, on the contrary, they cause quarrels among people and undesirable events may happen due to it. Actually, there are such quarrels, which are very shameful.

These discussions do not suit to some Theology Professors and to those who have some religious knowledge below them. They are not approved by our people either.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE IS: One or some of our professors of Islamic Jurisprudence must bravely declare that he is a mujtahid or he will exercise ijtihad again. It is his right according to Islam. People are free to accept or not to accept his ijtihads and this is the right of Muslims. Well, they do not behave in this way. They only discuss on televisions. When they are cross-questioned closely, they get out of it by saying: “They are but traditions or customs beside the Koran.” Firstly, if you define the Sunna of the Prophet as a custom or tradition, you go astray or it may lead you to blasphemy. Who else can exercise or apply the divine orders in the Koran as much as the Prophet (S.A.V.)? That Exalted Prophet (S.A.V.) is always under divine observation- divine supervision. Allah warns him immediately when there is a slightest mistake. He has already warned him. (These admonitions and divine helps are confirmed by the Koran.) However, the mujtahid, who is not a Messenger of Allah, has no admonisher and there can be faults due to this.

Great Islam Mujtahids, (Hanafi, Shafii, Maliki, Hanbali, etc.) do not consider the customs and traditions very much. Naturally, they sometimes benefit some good traditions or customs for a good cause. This consideration of general customs exists in the Western Jurisprudence as well.

Mujtahids are great jurists or specialists in Islamic Law. I wonder, how much does it suit to a theological scholar of Law to accuse them for being a traditionalist?

Brothers, bring up your matter if you have enough Canonical Jurisprudence knowledge to exercise ijtihad! Your way is open in Turkey. There are not any dicta regimes in Turkey as in other countries. You have already been talking about all kinds of subjects freely and extremely anyway. Media: televisions make some of you speak like a nightingale. Show yourself and say bravely that you are a Mujtahid Scholar of Islamic Law and you will exercise ijtihad. Declare to public that you are a mujtahid. This is a right of the scholar of Islamic Law who reached to that status. Exercise your ijtihad and let us see it. If we like it, we may join your new madhhab (religious sect). This is probable.

An important statement about ijtihad: There is an institution of ijtihad in Islam. However, there is not an institution of Ijtihad in Christianity. Protestantism emerged due to this. In other words, they started to protest church (the Pope), to refuse the rules of church and to do reformation (to do changing in Christian religion).

Islam has already solved this problem and accepted the institute of ijtihad. Now Islamic communities of Sunni people, including Turkey, have accepted four sects and the ijtihads of the four mujtahids for 1300 years. Ijtihad exists in Islam. All the professors of Islamic Jurisprudence know this. We suggest that one or some professors can show themselves and exercise ijtihad (if they can). They may establish fifth, sixth and seventh religious sects and nobody will prevent them. Alternatively, they can say, “there cannot be a fifth sect except the four sects accepted by the community of Sunni people.”

NO! All of them know that there is ijtihad in religion and it cannot be restricted. Then, why are they still leading the country to confusion using some expressions that belong to Christians such as Calvin, Luther (Protestantism), reformation in religion, although Islam has accepted ijtihad? I am calling all the intellectuals to do their duty. If I am speaking or writing incorrectly, I request from all the rightist and leftist intellectuals to use their duty and to warn me.

Islam does not need any statements concerning Calvin and Luther (Protestantism, reformation in Religion). Islam has already permitted ijtihad and interpreting laws and making judgments if it is necessary on condition that they will not be contrary to the Book and Sunna. However, one or some professors of Canonical Jurisprudence must say openly that he is a mujtahid like Abu Hanifa or Shafii etc. and he will do ijtihads again. He must declare to people that he is a mujtahid. This is his most natural right in Islam. Those who speak on these subjects without declaring this are causing confusions and incitements in society and they are not respected and approved by people either. They struggle desperately.

Ijtihad continues in Iran. This is exercised by the scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence called as “Ayatullah”. There are scholars of Islamic Law and Theology professors in our country as well. They can also do the same thing. They can make decisions and judgments on the subjects such as Social transactions (civil law), Family Law, Inheritance, official marriage, divorce, women’s right in Islam, equity, executorships, trusteeship, all kinds of regulations, Islamic economy, commerce, law of obligation, the usage of land and on the Governmental system in Islam (Administrative law) etc. as well as in all the obligatory prayers (prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, sacrificing animals etc). They can make new judgments like Abu Hanifa, Shafii etc… and exercise ijtihad again.

If the opinion “the door of ijtihad is closed” is conservatism, let them open the door of ijtihad and abolish conservatism. Why are they mentioning about Calvinism, Luther (Protestantism, changes in religion and reform) that concern or related to Christians while there has been ijtihad institution for 1300 years?

However, they must firstly accept that they are obliged to declare people beforehand that they are a mujtahid.

IJTIHAD IS EXERCISED OPENLY, IN FRONT OF THE CURTAIN BUT NOT BEHIND THE CURTAIN, SECRETLY. It must be done frankly not secretly, because each ijtihad is open to be discussed (disputable). You cannot insist on anybody in your own way. Muslims are free in accepting or not accepting it. It is their decision to accept it or not. This is also an inevitable right of Muslims.

Thus, Protestants had not accepted Protestantism (like Calvinism or Lutheranism) by force. 200-300 million Christians among two billon Christians accepted the doctrine of Calvin and Luther (Protestantism) using their free choice or free will by time. This process lasted at least 400 years.

There is no compulsion in religion or in faith. In Europe, the doctrines of Calvin and Luther (we can say Christian ijtihads) were not accepted by millions of people, at once.

Our Muslim mujtahids did not find millions of Muslim people near them at once either. The ijtihads of four Mujtahids were approved by some of the Muslims in hundred years. Thus, the Shii Muslims, whose number is over hundred millions, did not accept doctrines of Four Mujtahids. Nobody succeeded it in 15-20 years apart from our Prophet Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V.). Only Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V.) was able to gather all the people of Arabia in 23 years. This is a divine miracle. There is no similar case of it in history.

Beyond this is through insisting on people. Insisting on people in your own belief does not allow discussions and the name of it is dictatorship then. It means to impose your own ideas on people by giving instructions or orders. In a place where dictatorship is dominant, you cannot accept or refuse a doctrine through free discussions and free will. In Europe, Calvinism and Lutheranism (Protestantism) was constituted because of the free will and approval of some Christians but not by force. Protestantism was constituted in the course of time.

We are naturally accustomed to cheating and imitating in every thing. (We accept the easy way).Why should we get tired and leave it to people’s free will and discussions when there is an easy way and if it is possible by force?

Why should we leave it to people’s free will while there is an example of Wahhabis’s insisting on Hejaz Muslims, who were also the people of Sunnat, and making them accept their doctrine by using force?

Do the people, who say everything changes in nature and always talk about Darwin’s Evolution Theory, know that using force is against dialectic, reason and rationalism? They certainly know it! Then, what is this desire of Reformation in religion using insistence? This looks like Islamic Protestantism. They discuss the matter that concerns Christianity in vain. Such people want to cause disorders in the country. Then, what is this?

Nothing… Well, we are producing fantasies as we do in everything. Producing fantasies is a great pleasure and they cannot advance any further than producing fantasies. They are struggling in vain. The essential point is the opinion of the individual and his acceptance of any doctrine on any subject using his free will. This is especially the freedom of belief and the freedom of thought. He should express them freely without suggesting violence. Similar scientific and religious subjects cannot be imposed on people by insisting using force and by shouting on televisions. They are explained by the Scholars of Canonical Jurisprudence, who know the science of Jurisprudence (Islamic Law) at the most advanced level. Beyond this is nonsense talks and the result of it is mischief and disorder and to cause troubles in the country.

WHY CANNOT BE CHANGINGS IN RELIGION? It cannot be because reformation in religion means changing the former religion. This can only be done by abolishing the former religion and establishing a new religion. This is impossible. Religions are set up by the Prophets. Prophethood means getting in touch with Allah and the Angels. That is to say, Allah constitutes His religion through His revelation. The Prophets are the mediums of Allah to establish His religion.

Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V.) is “Hatemen Nebiyyin- The last Messenger (Prophet)” (Al-Azhab, 40)

However, mujtahids can re-establish a religious sect again. The aim of a religious sect is ijtihad. This is possible. People who accept the interpretations of a new mujtahid cannot be blamed for changing his religion or giving up his religion because he gave up his former religious sect and joined a new founded sect or he chose one of the former religious sects. For example, he left the ijtihads of Hanafi sect and chose the ijtihats of Shafii sect. He changed his sect or he chose or appropriated himself the ijtihats of a new mujtahid. Changing a religious sect does not mean giving up his religion because the basis of religion is the Book and the Sunna. He who refuses the Book and the Sunna has left the religion. Sects (Madhhabs) and ijtihats are the branches of religion but not the basis of it. As our Exalted Master Prophet (A.S.V.) permitted ijtihad, it is also included to the Sunna and the Religion. Ijtihad is not exempted from religion.

What will the person who changes his religion do? He will give up his former religion and join a religion that is re-established. In other words, he will abandon his former religion (like Islam, Judaism and Christianity) and will join the new religion, which is changed. It is absurdity and nonsense even to speak about such matters. It is possible to exercise ijtihat and constitute new religious sects. Our Prophet (S.A.V.) permitted this and it contributes the improvement of religion (to its dynamism). However, religion cannot be changed because the person who joins the changed religion is accepted to have left his religion.


The person who changes his religious sect (madhhab) protects his religious identity (belonging to it). Nevertheless, a person who joins a changed or reformed religion has changed his former religious identity (whether or not he is a Muslim, a Jewish or a Christian) because he has abandoned his former religion. Such a person cannot be called as a Muslim, a Jewish or a Christian any longer. He is defined either as an atheist or he changed his religion.

A person does not leave his religion by changing his religious sect. However, those who change the Book of Allah-the Koran- and the Sunna of the Prophet have left their religion because the basis of Islam religion is the Book and the Sunna.


MUJADDID: One who revives or renews. This is the meaning of mujaddid in Islamic literature and it does not have other meanings. Tajdid never means to change. Changing means reform. Reforming in religion is changing in religion.

In Europe, this was exercised in this way, Luther and Calvin were the leaders of it and they practiced a reformation in religion. Out of over 2 billion Catholics and Orthodox, only 150-250 million Christians regarded it in 500 years. Calvinists and Lutherans (all of them are Protestants) are actually the supporters of capitalists, upper class and high society. It is a social, political and economical movement rather than religious. It is an insistence of a worldly (secular) religion against divinity-spirituality. It is a kind of service to materialism.

Revival or renewal is performed concerning the principles of religion. Great scholars of the principles of Religion apply it. The scholars of the principles of Religion are Islamic philosophers, Islamic theologians and the Sufi Saints who are Islamic mystic scholars.

When we consider this feature of Islam, there are three doctrines of Islam: Philosophy, Theology and Sufism. They are related with the belief side of Islam. When faith or belief is weakened in Islamic World, some of them emerge in each century and try to strengthen belief and faith. They each bring scientific, philosophical evidences in order to strengthen the realities of belief in their own branch. Their aim is to strengthen or revive the weakened faith of people. It likens a doctor’s struggle to treat his patient whose health is weak. If these scholars of the principles of religion of Muslims observe a weakness in faith, they do their best to strengthen the faith of believers using proofs that are more powerful and divine powers (as Sufi saints). They are called as “the Mujaddidin of that age.” They show efforts in order to revive or renew but not to change. Tajdid does not mean ijtihad.

Ijtihad is exercised in the Islamic Law but Tajdid is practiced in the principles concerning belief and faith. Therefore, the realities of faith cannot be changed but they can be improved, revived and strengthened. This event looks like a patient’s recovery. If a patient gets better, he is described as “He revived, got better and recovered”. Not every man can do it. It needs great divine power and great knowledge. I touched on these subjects “Ijtihad and Tajdid” to prevent the confusion of concepts. Ijtihad is practiced in Sharia-in Islamic law- but Tajdid is practiced in Tariqat-divinity. I do not mention more details in order not to make you tired. I implore the help of God for the believers who serve for the religion of Allah and convey my greetings, my love and regards to all of you.


Calvinists and Lutherans are the religious interpreters of capitalists (of capitalism-liberal economy), of the high society, of upper class that are in accordance with them. They want to constitute a new religious interpretation (a new religious sect) for upper class. For, religion that is set for 1400 years and its performance seems difficult for the rich and high society. They want to make a place for them. This situation may be changed to a kind of Christianity in time and this is a pity for innocent Muslim community. I believe that Atatürk would not approve it either. He does not consent to people’s becoming Christian because Atatürk is the person who knows very well that most of his people are Muslims.


Yes, it is true that Islamic Economy is neither a governmental capitalism nor an individual capitalism. Therefore, leave Islam (the religion of Allah) free! Do not annoy or disturb it! The subject of religion is the subject of the scholars of Islam. Only real, pious and faithful religious scholars can speak on this matter. They know what Islamic Economy is or is not.

If you insist on this, we say and prove that the Prophet of Islam (S.A.V.) and his Four Caliphs personally intervened to market places and shopping. All the Muslims know the exercises or applications of Hz. Omar.

“Kitabul Haraj” that belongs to a student of Abu Hanifa is obvious. The state owns all the lands. The state justly gave the peasants the management of it but not the possession or ownership of it (on condition that they would give one tenth of the income to the state). It did not leave the ownership of them to individuals, as it is a general means of production. Then, the ownership of the general means of production (as well as the big factories) belongs to the state and their disposal or usage belongs to workers (such as labors and engineers) and they elect their own managers.

Islam intervenes in the economical life. Liberal economy cannot be applied where there is intervention. This is a fact. What shall we do in this situation, then? First, most of the Muslims must be pious, faithful and interested in divine life or be like the Companions of the Prophet in order to practice the Islamic economy. In this world, people must work in order not to need wicked people’s help, not to bow down before the tyrant and to lead a life on their own labor, to protect their children and families and to educate their children.

A Muslim should work and give at least one third of his wage to his government voluntarily. He will help his government to constitute a powerful-armed force. The protection of Muslim lands is possible by the deterrent-armed force of the state in order to defend but not to attack. If the state does not have such a power, it cannot protect the country of Muslims. If the country is lost, there will be no nation and religion then. If the enemy invades the country, they gradually change the religion and the language. A nation without a country cannot perform its religion anyway. Opening the places of worship and schools requires a piece of land (a country). In other words, religion cannot live if there is no country. Giving taxes and doing military service are the duties of the citizens. However, protecting the country, nation and religion (mosques, calls to prayers, and the Koran) are the duties of the state. Therefore, to die for your country means to die for Allah and it is the rank of martyrdom, which is the highest rank in religion.

Meanwhile, the production of contemporary technology is also the duty of the state. People or an individual cannot produce technology. This is the duty of the administrators. We must give the prior importance to scientific knowledge at European standards. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry scientists must increase in number. There is no other way of it.

Necessity: In today’s world, it is a fact that the capitalist system has gained a global dimension. Then, what shall the underdeveloped countries and we do?

What we should do is to obey what is real. This is for the safety, security of the country and of the state. If underdeveloped countries and we are against to it, we cannot enable the economical development. A country that has a breakdown economy either declines or weakens in the capitalist world. In addition, it cannot produce technology when its economy is bad and the state becomes weak due to it. There is a well-known saying: “You will kiss the hand that you cannot twist until you twist it.”

Now, we must sit and talk about the fact. We must not deceive each other. What we should do now is not to attempt to look for religious fatwa but to be pragmatic. We need to be like this very much. Firstly, we should become powerful and then we can challenge or oppose to superpowers. We must work constantly and become powerful with the capitalism, which is valued today, and with the production of technology. We have to increase the deterrent power of our armed force to protect our country. This does not mean defending militarism. The safety and security of our country depends on democracy. Our era is not the era of dictatorship. Then the route to follow is the route of TUSIAD that serves and wants to support the Turkish economy, without involving in religious affairs and requiring fatwa from religion.

Capital cannot be attained by showing Saidi Nursi a reference to Islam and by disguising him a religious costume. Statements related to Calvinism and Protestantism etc. are harmful for both the country and the economy. Islamic capitalism is on one hand seeking religious fatwa in order to reach TUSIAD and they want to attract Muslims by giving themselves divine features. On the other hand, they want to get the support of the Christians by mentioning Calvinism (Protestantism). We think that the administrators of TUSIAD are also aware of the intentions of Islamic Capital and they are taking necessary precautions. I want them to take precautions for the peace and safety of the country.

In today’s world, what is real is capitalism. There cannot be an atheist capitalism or religious capitalism. The advantage of our country relies on it at the present. We must not be contrary to the world because we cannot make war with the entire world. Well, it is said that Iran is opposing obstinately or being defiant. No! Iran is only bluffing. In addition, it has an economy and petrol advantage that supports it. All the underdeveloped countries must be in good relations with the capitalists of the world. This is necessary.

Nobody must attempt to earn money using the advantages of religion. Nobody should mix religion-Islam- with the politics. RELIGION DOES NOT NEED POLITICS AND OTHER SYNTHESIS. THE RELIGION OF ALLAH (ISLAM) IS PERFECT.

“El yevme ekmeltu leküm dineküm- (Muslims!) This day Allah has perfected your religion (Islam) for you and completed it.” (Al-Maidah, 3)

NOTE 1: We do not say that capitalism is legal or Islamic. We have already said and written many things on this subject. We only indicate the necessity of being in friendly terms with the Capitalist World for the safety and security of our country and of other Islamic countries. Therefore, we call all our people to help TUSIAD and SANKO, which desire to improve the economy of our country without depending on any references.

I am a dervish-spirited social democrat that is firmly attached to mystical religious doctrine and behaves for the benefits of workers-laborers-. I also emphasize that I have no organic connection with either a political party or an organization. I am a free Muslim Turkish man. Muslims who are not Turkish are also my true brothers. I implore mercy, guidance and help from Allah for all of them.

NOTE 2: Saidi Nursi Efendi had no relation with capital and Islamic Jurisprudence, for, he was a Shafii Ulama attached to Shafii Canonical Jurisprudence. He belongs to Ashary school of Shafii doctrine. Shafiis are Asharies in belief. Saidi Nursi Efendi was not interested in the Canonical Jurisprudence of Islam. His works involve the principles of Religion. This person strived to strengthen and to teach the realities of faith with the evidences based on revelation and reason. He was not a mujtahid. He was a pious, righteous Muslim who dedicated his life to strengthening the faith of people by serving in his field (a little theological, a little mystical). He may have some minuses as everybody. He is a human so he may have some minuses as well but high-minded people know him. Those who criticize him without knowing what he knows are opposing him for sentimental and political reasons. His real followers should not act as a means for Islamic capitalists but continue in the path of their master by learning and teaching the realities of faith.

The goal of Saidi Nursi and His students cannot be the affairs of Politics, Money and capital. Their only aim must be the consent of Allah because THE AIM OF THEIR MASTER WAS THE CONSENT OF ALLAH. For this reason, Islamic capitalists must not attempt to use our Nurcu Brothers (Nurcu-the followers of Saidi Nursi) for their own benefits.

Brothers! Islam Economy is never and in no way a capitalist and communist economy. Islamic economy is a third economic system of its own kind (original). Nobody should pull the Islamic Economy towards the Capitalism, Marxist (communist) economy. Capitalism, Marxist Socialism (Communism) and Liberalism, none of these are Islamic. Western Democracy is not Islamic either. However, Social Democracy is the closest system to Islam. Islam definitely supports laborers and the poor. It is socialist not individualist. Yet, it leaves individuals free in belief. It does not force anybody to have faith. The social aspect of Islam is true. Islam leaves the general means of production neither to individuals nor to the state. In Islam, there is neither a governmental capital nor an individual capital.

Well, they say that Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V.) permitted trade. Trade does not mean to own general means of production. Trade does not mean capitalism. Our Prophet permitted trade but he said for them, “Traders are sinning people.” They asked him, “Is trade canonically lawful?” Our Exalted Prophet Hz. Muhammad (A.S.V.) answered: “Yes, trading is permitted but traders cheat and lie and therefore traders become sinning people and immorality is the source of all kinds of wickedness.”

I would like to say for myself that I am a pensioner who is paid 620 YTL pension monthly. I have also a house that I inherited from my grandfather. I am 70 years old and I live with my wife on this monthly pension. I have no worldly possessions except this and I do not want more anyway. I give or send my books free of charge to whom they want or to some people as a present after signing it.

I have presented all my books to humanity page by page in Turkish and in English, in my website None of the writers does this. This is our difference from others. It is not proper to earn money with religious books and writings according to our religion. I emphasize this reality as well.

NOTE 3: Those who would like to obtain detailed information about Islamic Economy can read our Book “İslam Ekonomisi” together with our other books and articles and our views about Saidi Nursi from the same website.

An Important Note


1- The scholar of Canonical Jurisprudence (Islamic Law) that will exercise ijtihad should be entirely independent and free. He should not be under any commands or influence of a sovereign power or a physical force.

2- He should be a devout and a pious Muslim. He should not have any material (financial) expectations for his ijtihads.

3- He should gain the favors and good opinions of Muslim Communities beforehand.

4- The only irritation or anxiety he should feel must be that he should be in conscious of being observed by the ijtihads of thousands of academician Jurisprudence (Islamic Law) scholars among one and a half billion Muslim communities. He should have this irritation so that he will be very careful and not be contrary to the Book and Sunna. While exercising ijtihad, his only desire should be THE CONSENT OF ALLAH, which is the highest rank.

Note: This article has already been published in the newspaper “Adıyaman’da Bugün” on 3 February 2006. It was sent to several authors of our national newspapers, to Statesmen, to the Presidents of Council of State and the Court of Cassation, to Civil Society Organizations, to Political Party Directors and many other bureaucrats as a newspaper article for their attention.

1st February 2006