Sufism emerged from TEKKE (place of repose, refuge and asylum) not from MEDRESE (Theological School). There is no Sufi that has been a religious teacher of a Tariqat or there is nobody who has become a teacher of a Tariqat without having served a Religious Teacher (Perfect Man) of a Tariqat. He has become a Perfect Human (Pir, Guide, Master, Patron Saint, Spiritual Director) or a Religious Teacher after being perfected and trained under the education of a Religious Teacher.
In addition, Sufis do not set up belief and if they do, they see themselves as a Prophet then.
Belief is corroborated by the Prophet.
The Sufis explain the (belief) faith that the Prophet set up basing on the Divine Message.
Therefore, Sufis depend on the Divine Message, Revelation and particularly the metaphysical teaching of the Prophetbecause they refuse the faith formed using partial intellect and the principles of Aristotle Logic of the Philosophers and the logicians. They even accept it as a great insolence showed to the Divine Message and the Prophet.
All the Sufis claim that you cannot reach the Divine Knowledge and solve the realities of the articles of faith even you read millions of books. You cannot learn the metaphysical realities using your simple mind.
If the reason (mind-aqıl) were able to solve these realities, Allah would not have sent His Divine Messages and His Prophets and everybody would have learnt the Spiritual Realities reported by the Koran, the Torah and the Psalms of David and the Bible using their own minds.
All people who have a partial intellect would find his own god through thinking and reading. They would learn Him, His attributes (His beautiful names), the world of Spirits and Angels, the metaphysical realities and beings using their own mind without the need of the Prophet and Revelation. As a result of this, every rationalist thinker would be a Prophet. This is not fair!
Human mind (reason) is able to search and learn the physical world and the written Islamic Law. The scholar and the founder of the Canonical Jurisprudence is also the Divine Messenger Prophet. The verses about Shariat are incontrovertible and clear.
Apparently, Muslim Sufis, who have been explaining the metaphysical teaching of the Prophet and the real meaning of the reality of the Principles of Faith directly by holding the Divine Message –the Revelation and the holy Spirit of the Divine Messenger but not by forming a new belief and using Philosophy and the Knowledge of Theology, which is also a kind of Philosophy, have only one source: The Divine Message-the Koran and our Divine Messenger Hz. Prophet Muhammad and His Sacred Sayings.
Sufism is the Divine Knowledge (Gnosis) of Faith and of the articles of faith of Islam. The subject matter of Sufism is related directly with the realities of faith and the source of it is Islam.
It is the belief part of religion and the Knowledge of the realities of faith and “Man Araf” (to know one’s self) Sufism does not deal with the Canonical Jurisprudence which is the teaching of law, economy and social aspects of Islam. This is left to the expounders of Islamic Law. The founder and the scholar of Shariat formed with the Book and Sunnat is again the Prophet. The verses and the hadiths about Shariat are incontrovertible. They are not metaphorical or confusing. These verses and sayings are so clear and definite that every Muslim understands them very easily.
The Canonical Jurisprudence developed with interpretations beyond the Book and Sunnat has been set up by the expounders of Islamic Laws. Judgment in legal matters is permitted in Islam. The interpreters of the law are not the Prophets, therefore they can be right or wrong.
Consequently, none of the religious sects can be 100 percent true. Each religious sect has good and bad points.
Ijtihad is the interpretation of man, whose proof or reason is given and whose accordance with the Book and Sunnat are claimed by him. The opinions of the expounders of Law who do not have the quality of Prophecy are not divine. The Book and Sunnat have descended from the Heaven but the religious sects have not come from the Heaven. Ijtihad (religious opinions and independent, individual judgements or interpretations) is permitted in Islam and it is also necessary. Therefore, the religious sects and the interpreters cannot be denied.
People and the Religious Leader of Believers benefit from them. It enables and helps the progression and improvement.
Islam is not static either. It is dynamic.
“Külle yevmin höve fi şa’n - He (Allah) is in an activity, in a manifestation every instant.” (Al-Rahman, 29)
Allah is alive, He is everlasting, so, Allah’s work (task) never finishes and it has not finished yet. The first Creation and the new Creation continue. They are confirmed by the Koran.
In fact, ijtihad belongs to the Commander of the Faithful and his governors. The Prophet gave the right to express his opinions to his governor whom he assigned, named Muaz among his Companions. According to this hadith, ijtihad should belong to the Leader of Islam who is at the rank of commanding. The others may express their opinions if they are asked by the Commander. The person who expresses his opinions should be an expert in that field. The Commander of Islam and the Scholars of Islam always consulted for the opinions of the experts in that very knowledge. They may either accept it or refuse it. He acts according to his own judgment. The responsibility is on the Commander or on his governor but on the person who expresses his opinion.