THE UNITY OF THE EXISTENCE (EXISTENTIAL MONISM OR MONOTHEISM) - THE UNITY OF WITNESS - THE UNITY OF THE EXISTENT- PANTHEISM - THEOLOGY AND MASONRY
THE UNITY OF THE EXISTENCE (EXISTENTIAL MONISM)
“He (Allah) is the First and the Last, the Visible and the Unseen and He has knowledge of all things (He -Allah is knowledgeable).” (Al-Hadid, 3)
“When Adam was between water and mud, I existed even then. (My spirit existed)” (Sacred Tradition)
“I am (My spirit is) from Allah and the believers (their spirits) are from me.” (Sacred Tradition)
“I created (made) Muhammad (His Spirit, the First Spirit) from the Divine Light of My face (My Person).” (Holy Tradition)
“Allah first created the spirit of Hz. Muhammad from the Divine Light of His beautiful Face. He created the Throne from His Divine Light and then He created all the other things from the Divine Light of the Throne at different ranks.” (From Sırrul Esrar by Abdulkadir Geylani)
“Allah is the light of the Heavens and the earth.” (Al-Nur, 35)
“Maşallah la kuvvete illa billah- Allah has ordained: there is no strength (energy) except in God.” Al-Kahf, 39)
“Allah is the infinite sea of Divine Light (Nur). The six directions are all divine light.” (Mawlana Jalaladdin Rumi)
“Allah has encompassed (surrounded) all things.” (Al-Fussilat, 54)
“All things shall perish except Himself.” (Al-Qassas, 88)
“Allah is the Living and the Eternal One, the Ever- Existing One.” (Al-Baqarah, 255 / Imrans, 2)
The above verses, hadiths and the sayings of the Muslim Saints (Friends of God-Walis) are constantly trying to express the First Existence that is the eternal self-existent, the features of the existence, His infinity, (two infinite or limitless beings are impossible), His Unity, His Oneness and the reality of the origin of the Creation. Allah declared that He created man (human) from soil (clay). Then, what was the soil created from? From the earth. What was the earth created from? From the Sun. What was the Sun created from? From Allah (The sun is divine light-energy, strength and power). The Divine Light exists in light, heat, temperature and in colors. The source of all the elements is the Sun.
“Allah is the light of the Heavens and the Earth.” (Al-Nur, 35)
His divine light may be compared to the light in a closed room. That light is in a glass. That glass (a glass bulb or a lantern glass) is like the shining stars. It shines without touching anything. It is divine light upon divine light. It is very immense divine light. We can see numerous foam bubbles on a vast, infinite sea. Sometimes, the sea spurts out and produces a waterspout as if it is manifesting. These millions of foam bubbles exist from the sea, that is to say, the sea produced them while they were non-existent, but not from nothingness or out of nothing because existence does not exist from nothingness. Created is a different thing and nothingness is a different thing. The real being is the self -existent and the eternal existence is infinite and limitless. Then there is no non-existence. If we accept the non-existence, we limit the entity of Allah. If He is limited, Allah becomes a creature, matter or a substance then. He takes a shape because the created things, substances, material things are limited. The eternal entity Allah is divine light and power and He does not accept any boundaries. There cannot be two infinite beings, so, as the existence of the eternal being is compulsory, His Oneness-His Unity also becomes compulsory. Existence is only one and infinite. Since Allah is infinite, there cannot be such a being as nothingness.
The foam bubbles on the sea come to being afterwards from the sea. They will be perished in the sea again. There are billions of foam bubbles (the world of plurality) but they are limited and all of them have come to being from the sea. Their origin is the sea, water. The sea is also water and the foam bubbles are water too. The origin of the hundreds meters long waterspout is the sea or water. The foam bubbles, waterspouts and waves are but various appearances or manifestations of the sea. They are transitory or temporary beings but the sea always exists. You can find these matters written in details, in our book called “EXISTENCE”. This is called “the Unity of the Existence or Monotheism”. The sources are, as shown above, the Koran, hadiths, the holy sayings of the Prophet, AbdulKadir Geylani and Mawlana Hazretleri.
All the mystics-Sufis have accepted this Unity of the Existence (Sufism is the knowledge of this Unity of the Existence anyway). All the personalities of Sufism; either from the path of Hz. Ali or from the path of Hz. Abubakir (Muhammad Nakshibendi, Beyazid-i Bestami, Yusuf-u Hamedani, Ahmed Yesevi have approved the Oneness of the Existence-the unity of the Entity (Monotheism).
Junaydi Bagdadi, Sırri Sakati, Sayyid AbdulKadir Geylani, Sayyid Ahmed Rifai, Hasan Shazeli, Muiniddini Chesdi, Kubreverdi, Muhyiddini Arabi and Mawlana Jalaleddini Rumi, all of them, who belong to the path of Hz. Ali, declared the unity of the Existence.
The beginning of Muhyiddini Arabi is also these great, wise mystics mentioned above. Muhyiddini Arabi was also based on the above verses, hadiths and the doctrines of the sufi scholars who lived before him especially on the doctrines of the Sayyid AbdulKadir Geylani about the Unity of the Existence. That is to say, the Muslim mystics before him had already mentioned about the Unity of the Existence-Monotheism. However, Muhyiddini Arabi (1165-1239) had studied and scrutinized this matter “Existence and the Unity of the Existence” too much and he spoke a great deal on this subject. Since he gave very detailed information on this subject in his book called “Füsusul Hikem - The Bezels of Wisdom-”, he was supposed to be known that he created the subject of “the Unity of the Existence” or he was shown in that way.
No, no, no! When Sufism is mentioned, the first subject we will face is the “Unity of the Existence”.
This is called as plurality or manyness in unity and unity in plurality. The Gnostics, wise Sufi mystic saints explain this. The next part of Sufism after this includes the realities and matters concerning “Seyri-süluk (spiritual journey), Fenafi Pir (annihilation in the Perfect Man), Fenafi Resul (annihilaton in the Prophet), Fenafillah (annihilation in God), Bekabillah (abiding in God), Kurbiyet (nearness), Vuslat (the state of Union with the beloved), Love (divine love). They are the relations and matters of Tekke (place of repose), Tariqat (divine way), Dhikr (remembrance), Rabita (spiritual connection), Murshid (spiritual teacher) and Murid (aspirant). The Unity of the Existence concerns “the Science of Wisdom-Reality” (Ledunni: Divinely Bestowed Knowledge).
IT IS A DIVINE SCIENCE OR WISDOM. AS WE STARTED THIS SUBJECT MATTER OF THE EXISTENCE-UNITY-, WE WOULD LIKE TO STRESS ON THE FOLLOWING POINT: THE MAIN QUESTON OF THIS MATTER IS: What is the origin-the essence of the Creation-things? What is the essence of each thing or object? When we split any matter or thing into its molecules and then, when we split the molecules into atoms, we see that the smallest particle atom is not destroyed or lost, but it transforms into light-energy. It does not become lost. It mixes with the great self-existent, eternal, limitless existence that is Divine Light and power. Same as the foam bubbles of the sea break and mix with the sea again. Then, is there an origin, an essence of the first existence? No, there is no origin or the essence of the first and infinite existence.
The first existence is the existence Himself and He is the origin, the essence of things. The existence, who is the first and the Divine Light, is the existence that exists Himself. He is the origin, the essence of all things. The nature, the origin of all things, of the Creation, the Universe, of everything is the infinite existence. The spontaneous existence is not created from anything. Everything is created from Him, from His Divine Light like the sea and the numerous foam bubbles on it. The origin and the essence of the foam bubbles is the sea. The origin, the essence of the Creation, the Universe is the Divine Light of Allah, who is eternal, infinite Divine light and power. Allah created all things from a handful divine light of Him through condensation.
Foam bubbles, things are created and they are temporary. However, the first existence is eternal in the past and eternal in the future and He is permanent. The One who is self-existent, eternal in the past and eternal in the future and who makes everything in an order is called “Allah” (with knowledge and wisdom). What shall we call the One who is not created but who created all things from His existence, apart from Allah? What does self-existing mean?
It is impossible to solve this by reason. Yet, science has proved that this is true. Mind-reason cannot solve this but science is confirming this. This is the truth. Though this small, simple mind can understand or cannot understand this, it is the truth. Things, creation are not directly Allah Himself. They are indirectly Himself same as the bubbles are not the sea itself directly but they are the sea indirectly. Whatever you say, things are but the Divine Light of Allah (the First existence) originally and actually, same as foam bubbles. The dawn is not the Sun itself but it is not a second being apart from the manifestation of the Sun either. There are not two things. There is only “ONE” thing. Dawn is created afterwards but it is a manifestation of the Sun. It is not a second being besides the Sun. HEMEOST!: ALL IS HE!
COMES ONE BY ONE,
LEAVES ONE BY ONE,
THERE IS NO DOUBT, NO SUSPICION
ALL IS ONE, ALLAH IS ONE.”
There is also a matter of “HEME EZOST: ALL IS FROM HIM”
The science of Sufism and all the Sufi Gnostics always stressed on the Unity of the existence. However, Ahmed Serhindi Hazretleri from India (Imam Rabbani), who was from Naqshi Path and born 400 years after Muhammad Naqshibendi wanted to prevent and stop the ignorant people who used to say “if all things are Allah, I am Allah too” and speak without explaining it, because this subject can be spoken among the wise. He put forward the doctrine “the Unity of Witness)” for fear that those who speak without knowing this knowledge MAY DESPISE ALLAH. It was a precaution.
The UNITY OF WITNESS OR THE UNITY OF CONTEMPLATION is actually as follows: The universe is the shadow of Allah (this is also true). Yet, the owner of the shadow is the origin of the shadow. Shadow cannot exist if light does not exist. Light is not in need of the shadow but the shadow is in need of light. However, shadow cannot leave its owner; therefore, shadow can be considered as the owner of it. The shadow of Allah cannot leave Allah. A second being cannot be attributed to Allah. The shadow of Allah is indirectly Allah. It is a glory, a sign or a manifestation of Allah same as the dawn is accepted as a sign, a manifestation and a shadow of the Sun. I mean, it is not correct to call temporary beings and forms directly Allah. Serhindi Hazretleri says, “This was a bit heavy for me”. He thinks calling it “the Unity in Witness” is better and he exemplified it as follows: He said, “When the spirit of the aspirant -the follower of God- ascends and approaches Lahut -Allah- and becomes one of those who are close to Allah, he loses himself in the divine light of God. He thinks that he is lost or annihilated.” He explains the spiritual, psychological state of “fenafillah -annihilation in God-” in this way. He shows the stars as an example of this state. He says that when the sun rises, the stars become invisible but they are not lost. When the Spirit of an ascending aspirant sees Allah, he cannot see his own being in the Divine Light of Him and may say “ENEL HAK- I AM HAQ-(God-the truth)”. However, the Unity of the Existence (monotheism) is the science of knowing the origin, the essence of the Creation and it is a scientific subject. The sample Serhindi Hazretleri gives is a psychological state for the aspirant and it is another kind of explanation of the annihilation in Allah.
However, annihilation in Allah is not like in the sample of stars and the sun. When the sun rises, the stars become invisible but the distance of the stars to the sun does not change. They are in their same places. On the contrary, the spirit of the aspirant, shown as an example of a star, approaches Allah. Allah is great, infinite divine light. A spirit that approaches the great divine light melts in the divine light of Allah (same as the ice melts in a warm sea). If stars and planets come closer to the sun, the sun melts them down and annihilates them in itself. In the example that Serhindi Hazretleri gives, the stars and the planets are fixed in their places. They do not approach the sun. They become invisible in the excess light of the sun. However, Serhindi Hazretleri says that spirit approaches Allah, the state of the aspirant is already like this in any case. The spirit approaches Allah and becomes one of those who are close to Allah. He who approaches the great Divine light does not lose himself but he melts and he is annihilated. This is the reality of annihilation in Allah. The stars and planets do not approach the great, divine light-the Sun so that they will be annihilated. However, the spirit of the aspirant that ascends to God approaches Allah, who is Divine light, melts in this divine light and annihilates in that divine light. This is the process of annihilation in Allah. Serhindi Hazretleri also accepts that the Creation is the shadow of Allah same as the other Sufis and Muhyiddini Arabi Hazretleri. (Zillullah- the shadow of Allah) In this situation, the objects, beings or creatures have no second real existence as Theologians, Ashary, Maturidy and Mutazila claim.
There is no second existence created from non-existence or out of nothing. The universe is the shadow of Allah. Shadow is not a second existence. It does not have a real existence. It is another appearance of the owner of the shadow. Creation objects, things are also other appearances, manifestations and visions of Allah.
There is no other real and second existence apart from the real existence of Allah. Therefore, THE UNITY OF WITNESS is but an indirect explanation of the UNITY OF THE EXISTENCE. Then, this question may be asked “Yes, it is true but what is the origin of the stars?” This is a scientific question. It is definitely known that the origin of stars and planets is the Sun. The origin, the essence of the creation and of things is the attribute- the divine light of Allah, who is the first and the Divine Light Himself. However, this is in reality not identity. They are indirectly Allah same as the origin of the foam is the sea, and the origin of the stars and the planets is the sun and the origin of the earth is the sun. Considering the identity, the sea exists before the foam, and the sun exists before the planets and stars and they are very big. The sea does not need foams and the sun does not need the planets and the earth. However, the foams, waterspouts, stars and earth need the sea and the sun in order to manifest. Like this, Allah does not need creation and things to exist and to maintain His existence. He is eternal. Nevertheless, the creation, things, objects need ALLAH, WHO IS THE FIRST, INFINITE, LIMITLESS AND WHO IS POWER AND STRENGTH, in order to manifest or come to being. Then, Allah is Master but objects (living or non-living) are slaves. Allah has encompassed all of them and mastered them.
“ALLAH HAS ENCOMPASSED (SURROUNDED) ALL THINGS.” (Al- Fussilat, 54)
“THEN, WHERE DO YOU EVADE?” (Al-Kahf, 58)
“WHICHEVER WAY YOU TURN THERE IS THE PERSON OF ALLAH.” (Al-Baqarah, 115)
“FEFIRRU ILALLAH- EVADE (RUN) TO ALLAH.” (Al-Dhariyat, 50)
In the Unity of the Witness, there is oneness in the appearances. Yet, this is a state or condition. It is not scientific but it is an example like the stars and the sun. As it is definitely known the origin of stars is the sun, it is a scientific and confirmed fact and that the origin of all things is THE DIVINE LIGHT OF ALLAH, WHO IS THE FIRST AND DIVINE LIGHT EXISTENCE. The absolute is the Unity of the Existence. There are not two existences. They are like the foam and the sea. Moreover, Ahmed Serhindi is also a wise person and a saint but there are permanent wise people and saints than him such as Muhammad Naqshibendi, Abdulkadir Geylani, Sayyid Ahmed al Rufai, Muhiddini Arabi, Junaydi Bagdadi, Beyazidi Bistami, who are greater than him. There is no tariqat (order) founded bearing the name of Serhindi Hazretleri like NAQSHIBENDI, QADIRI, RIFAI, MAWLAWI, YESEVI, BEQTASHI ORDERS ETC…The founder of the Naqshibendi order and the great teacher of it was not Ahmed Serhindi, but it was a great gnostic and saint Sayyid Muhammad Naqshibendi Hazretleri, who knew the science of the Unity of the existence very well. These personalities were the Muslim Sufi saints of 11th, 12th, 13thcenturies. None of them mentioned the “unity of Witness”. Ahmed Serhindi Hazretleri was one of the sheikhs of the Naqshibendi Order, who lived in 16th -17th centuries. The latter Naqshis promoted him to some exaggerated ranks such as “Renovator Imam and Rabbani (devout)”. Real renovators are the holy and honored personalities, the founders of great orders whose pure names I mentioned. There is a renovator of each century. There cannot be a renovator of each millennium. Renovators come in every hundred year. There can be many renovators of each century at different ranks.
The spiritual teacher of each person is his Imam (leader) and all the pious believers are devout men. There is a verse:
“DO NOT ACT LIKE GOD BUT SAY WE ARE THE DEVOTED SERVANTS OF GOD!” (The Imrans-79)
All the believers are devoted servants like the merciful ones and the divine ones, which mean devoting himself to God Allah, so all the believers are devotees. Rabbani means the one who devoted himself to the Lord.
HEMEEZOST: ALL IS FROM HIM (FROM ALLAH). Naturally, all is from Him but how from Him? Allah is the eternal existence. He is the Absolute Existence. All things -the Universe, creation- are the manifestations created afterwards. Did the eternal existence create them out of non-existence or did He manifest them from His own Divine Light while they were not? Bringing into being from nothing and bringing into being from non-existence are different.
For example, the foam bubbles did not exist before. The sea brought them into being while they were not. But, what did it exist them from? From non-existence? Or from itself? It is possible or probable that it produced them from itself and they are in need of the sea in order to manifest or exist. The meaning of “the Possibility (Contingency) of the Existence” is this. Or else, there cannot be any manifestations from non-existence. Non-existence cannot be considered or accepted. Non-existence is impossible and absurd but the existence is definitely proved and confirmed, as Allah has no borders or limits. Allah does not have any boundaries. A border where Allah finishes cannot be thought. Allah does not accept any borders. Allah has no shape. Allah is infinite sea of divine light whichever way you look at in six directions. If Allah is limited, you give Allah a shape. In respect of bubbles, the existence of the sea is a necessity. The existence of the sea is compulsory and a necessity for the foam bubbles. The stars and dawns are also likewise.
Naturally, dawns, stars and planets have not appeared or manifested before. Yet, there was the sun prior to them. The existence of the sun was a necessity for their existence. Nevertheless, the existence of the stars, the planets and the dawns was possible for the Sun (The possibility of the Existence) and the origin of all of them was the sun. Yes, they existed afterwards. But, how and what did they exist from? Did they exist out of nothingness or from the sun and the sea? Allah has created, made or manifested the Universe afterwards, but what did He create it from? Did He create it from non-existence or from His personal Divine Light? He absolutely made, manifested or created it from His own Divine light. Allah has constructed the Universe, human beings from a handful divine light of Himself in an order. How did He construct them? He first made the fine Divine Light atom, then molecule and then substance- matter by condensing it. When they became solid as a substance, they split up, took different shapes and became simple.
Allah created a simple from His eternal Divine light so that His perfection would be known.
It is same as the vapor becomes water, water becomes ice and solid ice breaks and splits up and takes shapes or falls from the sky as hails and snowflakes by taking a shape. The origin of all of them is water or vapor. They will transform into water and vapor again. The following verses confirm this:
“We belong to Allah and we shall return to Allah.” (Al-Baqarah, 156)
“All things shall perish except the person of Allah (Himself).” (Al-Qassas, 88)
If it is said that Allah created them from nothingness but not out of nothing, then this question is considered or comes to mind: Then Allah is a limited being. Allah has a boundary where He finishes and beyond that point is the nothingness. He created from that nothingness. In this situation, Allah is both given limitations and a form and nothingness is accepted. Considering such a thing is impossible. The principle is:
“If existence is true, there cannot be non-existence.” There is either existence or non-existence.” Existence cannot come to being from non-existence. Beings, manifestations, signs come to being from existence same as bubbles, waterspouts, waves, slight agitation of the sea or the other manifestations or appearances of the sea come to being. The proved entity is the existence and the existence has no boundaries. If He has borders, other beings or existences can be considered beyond Him and other entities can be possible. Yet, the oneness- unity of Allah is due to His infinity. Allah is infinite divine light. Two infinite divine lights or two infinite existences cannot be thought. Existence is compulsory. Non-existence is not compulsory. Non-existence is impossible. That is all that one can say.
NOTHINGNESS HAS NO MANIFESTATONS (APPEARANCES) BUT EXISTENCE HAS MANIFESTATONS same as the dawn is the manifestation of the sun and the foam bubbles are the manifestations of the sea.
Islam philosophers and theologians accepted atom, the substance, the particle that cannot be split (arkhe) of Demokritos, who was the Roman or Greek philosopher of the Existence and lived about in 400-450 B.C., as the indivisible first being. They accepted two existences saying that the first, eternal existence Allah created this indivisible particle (atom) from nothingness and then He created the Universe from atoms. One of them is the eternal existence, whose existence is compulsory, and the other is the atoms that He created afterwards when they were non-existent and things that come to being from them. I mean to say, according to theologians there are two existences. One of them is the compulsory existence; the other is the possible existence-the Universe and the creation in the Universe whose existence is possible.
The meaning of the indivisible part: They said if the smallest part that is impossible to divide (atom) is divided, then non-existence would start and atom becomes annihilated. They accepted in this way. So, all these Islam philosophers and theologians (Kindi, Farabi, Ibni Sina, Ibni Rushd and all the master philosophers and theologians (Ashary, Maturidy and Mutazila) are rational, logical, philosophers. The philosophers who try to prove the essence and the attribute through philosophy are called as “theological philosophers” because their method is also based on logic, analogy and deduction using theoretical mind. They try to agree what is revealed with the proofs of mind. Whereas, today the atom they thought it could never be divided was divided but it was not lost or annihilated. On the contrary, it mixed into the Universe after transformed into light, power or energy. The doctrine, which is nothing existed from nothing or non-existence and they existed from this great existence and would annihilate in this great existence again and that all the things and the Universe were relative compared to the great eternal existence that is divine light, is proved to be scientifically true based on the Einstein’s Relativity Theory and on these facts. The scientific views of the Koran and the Prophets and Sufis that all things were created from the Divine Light of Allah’s Person and attributes were proved right. It became obvious that all things consist of the condensation of the Divine light of Allah, who is the Absolute existence, the infinite eternal being, and the essence of everything, the Universe, of human beings is the Divine Light and power. That old theological philosophy and the science of theology have finished.
“Allah is the light of the Heavens and the earth.” (Al-Nur, 35)
“La kuvvete illa billah- There is no strength or power except Allah.” (Al-Kahf, 39)
“He is the First and the Last, He is the Visible and the Unseen and He knows everything.” (Al-Hadid, 3)
There is no absurdity and no disorder in nature. This is the absolute proof that Allah has knowledge, wisdom and art.
We repeat again, Hemeost: All is He (Allah). Existence does not accept duality. Existence does not have a border. Two borderless beings cannot be thought. “Allah has encompassed all things.” (Al-Fussilat, 54)
The entire Universe consists of radiation. There is no matter but there are lights-rays and activity, vibrations. Allah is Divine Light and He is alive. (He is light and living and He is active and energetic.)
It is proved that there are rays (light) in the human brain (in the skull) and in the heart of people. This essence, light- rays enable us to think, to reason, to understand, to feel and to love. We learn knowledge by means of the lights in our brain and we get to know the origin the essence. We watch and love the beauty of God reflected on the nature and things and get excited and affected with the lights in our heart. The essence (rays) in us is the First Spirit of God (The Spirit of Muhammad-the Supreme Spirit) called as “The reality of Muhammad”. This first Spirit is very great, like the Sun. What breathed into our brain and heart is the sparks of this Spirit like the stars. Intellect, mind and thought are the qualities of Spirit (Essence). The origin of this Supreme Muhammadi Spirit is Allah, who is the first, eternal existence and who is divine light and power.
“Allah first created my spirit, my divine light.” (Sacred Hadith)
“I was even then the Prophet when Adam was between water and mud.” (Sacred Hadith) SIRRUL ESRAR BY ABDULKADİR GEYLANİ
KAZIM YARDIMCI /ADIYAMAN
18th January, 2006