SHARIAT AND TARIQAT IN ISLAM
1. Preface 1 - Preface 2
2. Islam, the Religion of Allah
3. The Origin of Sufism
4. The Tariqat of Muhammad
5. Crimes and Punishments
6. Belief- Faith and Sufism
7. Faith and Worship
8. Some Verses from the Koran
9. The Mystery of “Huuu” in Breathing
10. The Prostration before Adam (The Perfect Man)
11. Visiting Graveyards
12. Who is authorized (permitted) to Intercede?
13. Religious Commentaries after the Prophet of Islam
14. Religious Commentary of Sufism
15. “İyyake na’büdü ve iyyake nestein”
- Ahl al Bait (The Immediate Members of the Family of the Prophet (A.S.) and İnsan-ı Kâmil (The Perfect Man)
17. Some Commentary Matters
18. When Interpretation becomes Commentary
20. The Expressions: The Allah of the Koran – the Islam of the Koran
21. Faith may increase and decrease
22. The Verses from the Koran about Intercession
23. The Verses from the Koran about Guardianship
SUFISM IS THE ESSENCE - KERNEL- OF RELIGION
As it is known, every scholar has interpreted religion according to himself, from his point of view. The problem is to choose the most proper one for the essence of religion. Religious interpretation of the Sufis is the most appropriate for Islam because Sufism is the teaching of the essence of religion. It is not interested in the exterior aspects, rules and canonical laws, shortly in details. Sufism tries to teach Allah, Nature, Man and the realities of them. The beauty, order and wisdom in nature are the reflections of Allah on the nature. Nature is the work of Allah and Man is the greatest work of Him, because he is consisted of a body and Spirit (Mind). He is the most superior of all the worlds because he is the synthesis of the inner and outer worlds. Sufis try to live this knowledge, order, wisdom and beauties in nature and see the physical and spiritual beauties in human and learn the divine realities of them.
“He who knows himself (his essence) knows God.”
Briefly, Sufism is the Knowledge of Allah, Wisdom and Love. Sufis know that Allah is the essence of Man (Human) and nature. This is infinite knowledge and wisdom. To know the Absolute Existence is to fall in love with this Absolute Beauty. Sufism does not deal with the Canonical Law and Jurisprudence. It does not care about the Catechism except enough knowledge for performing the worship. Shariat (Law) and Tariqat (Way) are not his aims or objectives and they are not the essential but only the details, symbols and ways.
“A Sufi looks for Allah, who has encompassed both the Earth and the Heavens and who is the infinite knowledge, beauty and energy, in human and in his heart.”
Again, a Sufi would like to learn wisdom (True Knowledge) and divine reality through deep contemplation and to love the Divine Beauty (the Absolute Beauty) through the beauties of human and nature, that is to say, he tries to acquire real love by metaphorical love.
The result of this is good moral qualities and honesty, which means to consider the benefits of the society more than his own benefits and to be realistic and sincere by abstaining completely from hypocrisy. It is to struggle against his own carnal self and desires but not of the others’, leaving all kinds of fights, arguments, temptations, corruption and intrigue. It is to be merciful, generous and be pleased with the little in this life and also to oppose violence and terror.
A real Sufi is against formal (disguise) Islam. He does not pay any importance to Madrasa, Tekke (convent) and Mascid (places of worship). He finds reality in himself and seeks Allah in his heart. His place of worship is his heart because the real tekke and mascid (mosque) is the Heart. The most important thing for the heart is the Remembrance (Ziqr) and the Love of Allah (the Remembrance of the heart and the love of the heart). This is not an external remembrance or physical love.
It is deep contemplation (thinking), remembrance (to remember Allah and never forget Him) and more importantly, to love God, the Perfect Man (Adam), who is the great and mysterious work of Him, his children and nature.
It is to become mature while being immature and to reach divine perfection. All the Sufis have explained it in this way. This humble servant (fakir) has already explained Sufism in details in the books we have written so far, such as: “Varlık (Existence), İslâm’ da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş (The Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending)”, “Muhammed-İsa-Adem (Muhammad-Jesus-Adam)” and in others. Yunus Emre and Sayyid Ahmed er Rufai Hz. also summarized Sufism, which is a divine sea, as follows:
Yunus: “Shariat and Tariqat is a way for the one who reaches them.
Marifat (Divine Wisdom) and Hakiqat (Divine Reality) are in the heart.”
And Sayyid Ahmed er Rufai Hz. said:
“The heart of a Sufi is lighted with love,
His spiritual heart is broad (comforted).
With the Divine Light of Gnosis”
(His bosom is not depressive)
We believe in these two precepts and try to find them.
See what the Sufi Poet Neyzen Tevfik said about this subject:
“Sufism stands up to ignorance in Islam
Forget about Rafizi, Alawi, Sunni, all of them
Take offence at all of them,
Mecca, Medina, Karbala, Jerusalem
Their meaning in appearance is ornamentation
I do not care for Masjid, Madrasa, Monastery, and Church, Vatican…”
(*) Poet Neyzen Tevfik meant to say that the striking appearance of these rituals is ornamentation. However, he indicates that he is respectful to the real meanings of these places.
March 10th, 2000 Alanya KAZIM YARDIMCI (1936-Adıyaman)
Sources: “Yunus Divanı”, “Onların Alemi” by Sayyid Ahmed er Rufai, 25th
This preface is taken from the back cover of the book called “Shariat and Tariqat in Islam” and it belongs to the writer of the book, KAZIM YARDIMCI.
There is no real religion and real Islam where there is no freedom and democracy.
Monarchism, which is pestered Islam by the Umayyad and which is based on the personal principles of the Kings, Emperors and Sultans, is an extremely cruel, fascist and a despot system. It is a dictatorship.
The existence of some of the good kings such as Omar b. Abdulaziz and Murat Hudavendigar do not disprove that the monarchic system is the opposite of Islamic system. The favors of the good Kings are their own goodness, but not because of the favor of the Monarchy. These good kings are very rare in History anyway; they are only a few.
The most important thing is the system. The Islamic System is democratic and it is respectful to the human rights and the freedom of people.
The Western Democracy is not Islamic but Social Democracy is the nearest to Islam. Cordial piety does not exist in a place where there is no democracy.
According to the Prophet’s Hadith, “The Caliphate-Shariat will last 30 years after me. Then, a rapacious, cruel Monarchy will start”. Therefore, if a person who is not like Hz. Ali, Hz. Abu Baqr, Hz. Omar, Hz. Osman, I mean (That is to say), not like the Four Caliphs, he is not able to serve as a caliph and Shariat cannot be applied. It is a fascist regime or a dictatorship then. Cruelty and oppression are practiced in the name of Shariat. Every personal order of the King is shown as the order (command) of the Shariat and Ulama approves it because of their fear. The name of cruelty becomes shariat. God Forbid!
The Four Caliphs were very pious, just and democratic great personalities and they were loved by their people very much.
From Yunus Emre:
“Divine order and divine path is a way
For the one who reaches them,
Divine knowledge and reality are in the heart.”
ISLAM, THE RELIGION OF ALLAH
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim-In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
The religion of Allah is Islam. The basics of Islam are as follows:
- The Book (the Glorious Koran)
- Hadith-i Kudsi (Sacred Tradition): The direct speech of Allah with our Prophet personally.
- Hadith-i Sherif: The Prophet’s particularly own sayings.
- Sunnat (Customs of the Peophet): The actions done and not done by our Prophet or his practice and customs. The Shariat and Tariqat are depended on the Book and Sunnat. Shortly: the Religion of Allah is the “Tariqat of Muhammad” and the “Shariat of Ahmed”. It is the spiritual way and metaphysical teaching of Hz. Prophet, or the path of being near to Allah spiritually. It is also the teaching of worships as well as social science, Jurisprudence, Economics and Administration and the foundation and practice of his system (his state) depending on these teachings.
The sources of all of them are the Book (the Glorious Koran) and the Sunnat. Sunnat consists of the Hadith-i Kudsis and Hadith-i Sherifs as well as the actions, deeds and performances done or not done by the Prophet. Therefore, the Source of the Sunnat is also the Koran and the Sunnat of the Prophet is Divine just like the Book.
Islam is Divine and it was not set up through reasoning or using Partial Intellect.
In one word, Islam is a “Divine System”. It depends on the Universal (Cosmic) Intellect or Absolute Reason (Akl-ı Kül).
The Pure Spirit of the Prophet or His Supreme Spirit is the first Spirit of Allah. Human minds come from the Spirit, but the Prophet’s Mind is the Universal Mind (Akl-ı Kül) same as the Sun and the Stars. The stars differentiate according to their lights and the structures and so do the partial minds. However, the Mind (Intellect) of the Prophet is just like the Sun. It is the whole mind, the source of all minds. (*)
“Allah first made My Spirit, first of all My Divine light first the Mind, first the Pen” (**)
Four of them mean the spirit of Muhammad, which is great like the Sun. This is called “the Hakiqat (the Reality) of Muhammad”.
(*) “Küntü nebiyyen... When Adam was between mud and water, I was even then the Prophet.” (Thirmizi, Sünen, Menakib.1: Ibn Hanbel, Vol.4, p.66)
(**) Ajluni, vol.1, p.265, Sırr’ül Esrar by Sayyid Abdülkadir Geylani,
El Kaari, Şerhüş-Şifa, vol.1, p.505.
Hz. Prophet (S.A.W.) is a mercy for the Worlds. Our Prophet is the Sun of the inner world same as the Sun enlightens and livens the entire Universe. He became the Sun of the Exterior World by his arrival at this world. For this reason, Allah said to him:
“I sent you as a blessing (mercy) to the worlds” (Al-Anbiyah, 107)
The Tariqat of Muhammad is consisted of Knowledge or True Knowledge of faith and worships. Man must worship and serve his Master whom he believes in order to please him and encounter him and this is a compulsory even an obligatory duty.
The Principles of Faith (Belief) are corroborated by Allah and his Apostle. They are explained by Allah and His Apostle.
Nobody, except the Prophet, can set up belief through reasoning or using his practical (partial) intellect.
When the subjects about Logic are studied, we first meet “the Aristotle Logic”. The Logic of Aristotle (1) had great influence at the beginning. There was no other logic except his logic.
We meet Descartes (2) in the second place: Rational Reasoning. (It is the Methodology of Descartes as he founded Rationalism). There is no other reasoning except Rational Reasoning according to him.
(1) Aristotle: (B.C. 384-322) He was a famous Greek Philosopher. He worked as a student of Plato until he was 37. He studied on the fields of Logic and Metaphysics at Aristotle Academy. He was also interested in Law, Mathematics and Astronomy. “The Aristotle Logic” has been discussed for hundreds of years. (Encyclopedia Life, from the article about Aristotle)
(2) Rene Descartes: (1596-1650) He is a famous French Philosopher and Scientist. He claimed that in order to reach real Knowledge, you should doubtful of everything. He summarized his ideas saying, “I think therefore I am or I am thinking, therefore I exist”. Descartes accept that the concept of God has existed in our minds since we were born same as the principles that mathematics is based on. According to him, “it is impossible to comprehend and understand such an excellent Existence with the sensations of man who is not perfect”. By this way, he believes in the reality of such an Existence who has been present in our minds since we were born. (The Encyclopedia of Life, the article about Descartes)
After them or on the third phase Kant (3) stated and proved the dangers of Strict Rationalism itself by criticizing the Pure Reason.
He said that rationalism or using Logic would help the physical sciences such as Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Biology whereas when metaphysical and mystical thoughts were applied to Mind, it would force the mind and cause confusion in thinking and so it would reach wrong judgments and would not get rid of conjectures and hypothesis (4). The metaphysical realities could not be solved using Logic or Reason (Rationalism). The field the normal human mind deals with is the physical field and partial intellect cannot reach a definite judgment (5) in metaphysical matters.
Descartes also states that partial intellect is limited in metaphysical matters and the Perfect cannot be comprehended using a normal mind.
Metaphysics can be learnt with divine messages. Those who explain the Divine Messages are the Prophets who have the complete, universal intellects and the wise friends and saints of God and the heirs of them, who are able to contact with them.
Belief and all kinds of worships performed under this belief are called the path of Allah- the way that leads to Allah (Spirits return to the Compassionate). This is called the Tariqat of Muhammad in religion, which means the Path of being Perfect or Mature.
These worships begin with prostration before the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.) respectfully and heartily and by swearing allegiance (act of obedience9 (6) and by establishing a spiritual tie (contact) (7) with His Pure Face and Spirit as well as with deep love.
(3) Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804): He is a well-known German Philosopher. He completed his first book called “the Critique of Pure Reason” in 1781. It is accepted as the most important philosophy book in the last two hundred years. (Encyclopedia Life, from the article about Kant)
(4) Allah says in the Koran: “Do not obey the conjecture as it is not true”. (Yunus, 36)
(5) Ghazzali, who is a great philosopher and Theological Scholar, noticed this reality a long time before Kant and said that the Metaphysical realities could not be learnt using ordinary partial intellect. He defended Mysticism (Sufism) saying that metaphysical realities could be learnt through Divine Messages.
(6) “İnnema yubayiuneke... Those who swear allegiance unto Muhammad swear allegiance only to Allah” (Al-Fath 10)
(7) “Ya eyyühellezine amenüsbiru... Believers, be patient, carry on with your patience, form a spiritual bond with Muhammad and fear God so that you may triumph.” (Al-Imrans, 200)
After that, it begins with remembering the name of Allah often, morning and night, every moment. (8)
“Vezkür Rabbeke iza nesite - When you forget, remember your Lord”. (Al-Kahf, 24)
Then, in the presence of Him, to stand up for the remembrance, praying by turning towards the Kaaba in order to perform Salat (Ritual Prayer) which means “Qıyam-Upright Position (Standing)” (9)
After that, bowing before Him respectfully while the palms of the hands reach knees: “Rükû-Bending, Bowing or Kneeling”
Then, touching the ground with your face prostrating in the Presence of Him. To be nothing in the presence of Him, to be perished in front of Him, which means “Sajda-Prostration”.
We call of them “Namaz-Salat” because Salat or Ritual Prayer is performed with standing upright for prayer, bowing, prostration and reading the Koran.
By the way, there are four pillars-rükuns of the Prayer:
2-Qıyam (Upright Position or standing)
The rest of them are not compulsory.
(8) Some of the verses about the Remembrance of Allah (Ziqr) are as follows:
“Vele zikrullahi ekber - The foremost duty is to remember Allah.” (Al-Ankabut, 45)
“Fezkürûni ezkürküm - Remember Me (Allah) so that I will remember you!” (Al-Baqarah, 152)
“O the people, Remember God abundantly.” (Al-Ahzab, 41)
“Surely, in the remembrance of Allah, all hearts are comforted.” (Al-Rad, 28)
“Remember God always so that you may be saved!” (Al-Juma, 10)
“Those who have faith remember God when sitting, standing and lying down in their side and think about the creation of the Heavens and the Earth.” (Al-Imran, 191)
“Vezkürisme Rabbike - Remember the name of your Lord!” (Alâ, 15)
It is directly commanded to remember the name of your Lord in this verse. This does not mean to recall Allah but directly to say or to repeat the name of your Lord and this is called “Ziqr”. The name of our Lord is Allah.
It is definitely understood by this verse that the purpose of ritual prayer is “Ziqr-Remembrance”
(9) “Ve ekimüsselate li zikri- Stand up to ritual prayer for My remembrance.” (Ta-Ha, 14)
Fasting: Fasting also means to be away from wickedness. It means abstaining from food, drinks and intimate intercourses for a certain period of time. It is a kind of diet. It is to make body taste this divine punishment.
Zakat (Alms) means to distribute 40 percent of the property to the needy and poor (10).
The amount of Zakat is not written in the Koran but the Prophet and his representative may increase it if necessary such as: 1/30, 1/20, 1/10. The decision belongs to the Commander of the Faithful-Amir al Muminun who is the True leader.
Hajj (the Pilgrimage) means paying a visit to the Kaaba in Mecca by those who are mentally financially and physically suitable (11). The spiritual pilgrimage means being in the presence of Allah and to see His beauty, His Perfection and His grace. This is performed spiritually with the heart. It is physically impossible. Physical eyes cannot see the Face of God, which is infinite Divine Light. If only a drop of Him is seen, the eyes become blind. The physical ears cannot endure it, his eardrum bursts and he becomes deaf.
Let as hear these subjects (Ritual Prayer, Fasting, Pilgrimage and Alms) from Sayyid Abdulkadir Geylani, the great Master (Gawsul Azam) who studied them with all aspects in Shariat and Tariqat.
(10) “Perform your ritual prayers and render the alms levy!”
Note: In the Koran, there are about 100 verses that command to “distribute Alms”.
(11) “The first temple over to be built for men was that of Mecca, a blessed site, a beacon for the nations. In it, there are veritable signs and the spot where Abraham stood. Whoever enter it is safe. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty to God for all who can make the journey”. (The Imrans: 96, 97)
- THE MEANING OF THE RITUAL PRAYER IN THE SHARIAT AND TARIQAT (*)
The Ritual Prayer in the Shariat:
“Attend regularly to your prayers, especially the middle prayer!” (Al-Baqarah, 238)
According to the verse above;
Ritual Prayer-namaz is performed with the Command of our Religion; the Pillars performed by physical actions with the eternal feelings such as standing up, reciting some verses from the Koran, bowing, prostration and repeating some words loudly… all of them belong to the Ritual Prayer and namaz is consisted of all these actions. For this reason, it is commanded with the plural noun:
“Attend regularly to your prayers!”
The meaning of the ritual prayer in the Tariqat is to enable the heart to be in the infinite peace.
What we want to explain is the middle prayer mentioned in the verse above because it is the prayer of the heart and the heart is just in the middle of the body. It is between, right and left, up and down, happiness and complaint. The heart presents a middle position between them.
Our Most High Prophet said:
“The hearts of the sons of Adam (mankind) are between the two fingers of God. He turns them where He wills.”
As it is understood from the above verse and saying that the most important task is to perform the prayer of the heart. If the heart of a person is not aware of the real prayer, his physical prayer is also misdone and the peace of all the feelings is corrupted due to it.
This is confirmed by the following saying of the Prophet:
“The Prayer can only be performed with the peace of the heart.”
For, he who performs his prayer is in silent and fervent relation with his Creator. The place of inward supplication (Conversation, personal prayer) to God is the heart. When the heart is heedless, the spiritual value of the heart dies and the peace tasted by the exterior feelings is lost. Because the heart is essential, the rest are based on it. We understand this reality from the following saying of our Prophet:
“In the human body, there is a lump of flesh; when it is healthy the whole body is healthy and when it is unwell, the whole body is unwell and this (lump) is the heart.”
The Ritual prayer of Shariat depends on time. It is performed five times in a day including night. As a custom, it should be performed in a mosque in congregational prayer modestly. You should obey the Prayer Leader (Imam), face to Qıbla, be humble and perform it in this way.
The ritual prayer of Tariqat is infinite. It lasts forever. The mosque of it is the heart. The congregation of it is the spiritual forces that continue to recite the unification names with the tongue of the inner world. The prayer leader of it is the eagerness. The Qıble of it is the SOLE GOD and His Divine Beauty. The real heart is the one that is able to perform this prayer. Such a heart and spirit are always busy with the prayer because the heart neither dies nor sleeps. He continues this duty when he is awake and asleep.
The prayer of the heart is performed with the life of it. There is no sound, no standing and no sitting. He speaks with God the Most High knowing the Prophet (A.S.) as a leader with the verse:
“We worship to you and to you we turn for help.” (Al-Fatiha, 5)
Hz. Kazî interprets this verse as follows:
“In this, there is a sign for the state of the wise Person. He passes to the world of ONESESS when he is in this spiritual state in the invisible world. He is the Most Holy, the Glorious. This great heart is addressed to various Divine speeches.”
Another saying from our Prophet (S.A.) is “The Prophets and the Friends of God (Saints, Walis) perform their prayers in their graves as they are alive at home.”
(*) It means the Physical (Exterior) and the Spiritual (Interior) Prayers.
It means they speak with God with the life of their hearts. When these two prayers are united (together), it becomes perfect and the reward of it is great. He lives in the world of union spiritually and reaches his degree physically. The person who performs his prayer like this is called by the name “Abid-devout servant” in the outer world and “Wise-Scholar” in the inner world. When the prayer of the Shariat and the prayer of the Tariqat are not united, it is incomplete. The reward of it brings only the spiritual degrees; he cannot find nearness in the world of divine being.
- THE ALMS IN THE SHARIAT AND TARIQAT
The alms are distributed both in Shariat and Tariqat but differently. The alms given according to the requirements of Shariat is to distribute the annual amount of possession to the needy after having the main necessities.
The alms given in Tariqat is to distribute from the spiritual wealth to the needy and the poor spiritually.
Alms also mean charity. God informed us about it in the following verse as:
“Alms shall be only for the poor and helpless.” (Tawba, 60)
The alms touch the hand of Allah before it is distributed to the poor. This means that Allah the Most High accepts it.
The great personalities donate the merit of their good acts to the rebellious servants. Allah covers their selfishness by manifesting His mercy as much as their Pilgrimage, fasting, prayer, alms, recitation and remembering God.
Their munificence is too great to save anything for themselves. They have neither merits nor goodness for their own.
The person who is in the Prophet’s way is insolvent because he is very generous. Our Prophet (S.A.W) explains this as follows:
“The insolvent is entrusted to God for safekeeping in both worlds.”
Rabia-ı Adaviye (R.A.) would pray in this way:
“O my God, distribute my worldly share to the unbelievers. If I will have spiritual share from the next world, distribute it to the believers. My only aim in this world is to remember you and to see you in the world hereafter, because whatever is owned for a certain period of time by the servants belong to my Master.”
On the day of Resurrection, each good deed will bring ten-folds merits (rewards). God informs us about it as:
“He that brings a good deed shall be repaid ten-folds.” (An’am, 160)
Another meaning of the almsgiving is the purification of the self (nafs). When self is purified from the selfishness, alms find the spiritual value of it.
A piece of wealth given in this world brings a rich reward in the next world. The following verse explains this meaning:
“Who will give a generous loan to Allah the Most High? He will pay him back two-folds and he shall receive a rich reward.” (Hadid, 11)
God also says:
“Blessed shall be the man who has kept his self pure.” (Shams, 9)
The loan mentioned above is the good deed distributed to the servants of God in the path of Allah. You should only expect the beautiful face of Allah from this distribution but not the worldly riches. The good deeds should be given to people kindly not ostentatiously. Allah informed us about this as follows:
“Do not mar your almsgiving with taunts and mischief making!” (Baqhara, 264)
You shall not expect anything from this world in return. Another name of it is “infak-distribution”. The following verse tells us why and how it will be given:
“You shall never be truly righteous until you give in alms that you clearly cherish in the path of Allah.” (The Imrans, 92)
- FASTING IN THE SHARIAT AND TARIQAT
The fasting of Shariat means abstaining from food and drinks and giving up the intimate intercourse during the day.
The fasting of Tariqat means protecting all the feeling from all things forbidden by religion during the day and night and to leave the bad things that are contrary to mind both in the inner and outer worlds. The fasting is broken when any of the forbidden things is committed.
The fasting of Shariat is temporary whereas the fasting of Tariqat is forever; it lasts all your life. Our Prophet says in one of his hadiths:
“There are a lot of fasting people but they only get thirsty and hungry.”
Therefore, most fasting people break their fast but those who break their fast are still fasting. It means they protect their feelings in order not to harm anybody and they do not torture and hurt people with their hands and tongues… This is the fasting, which Allah described as:
“The fasting is for Me and I give the reward of it.” (Al-Baqarah, 182-187)
Our Prophet says for the people who perform this divine fasting:
“A fasting person has two pleasures, the first is at the moment of breaking the fast; the second is during vision.”
May Allah C.C. bestow upon us this fasting and this pleasure with His grace and mercy! Amen!
The people of Shariat interpret this hadith as follows. “Breaking the fast means to start eating when it is sunset. Vision means the appearance of the Crescent of Bairam.”
The people of Tariqat say:
The meaning of the breaking of fasting is to enter the Paradise, to eat the heavenly food there. May God enable us to have it!
Vision means to watch Allah with the eye of the secret apparently. May God favor this to you and to us with His grace and benevolence! There is another fasting called “The fast of Reality” which means protecting the heart to worship none except the Person of Allah and to love only Himself. It means to love only Him in the world of mystery because man (human) is created for Him. He informs us this reality:
“Man is My secret and I am his secret too.”
Secrecy is a divine light from Allah and He does not like us to incline anybody else except Himself. For this reason, there is nobody else except Allah to be loved, to be desired and to be wished neither in this world nor in the hereafter.
If there is another love for someone else besides God in your heart, the fast of reality is broken and you should fast again. You ought to long for His love and desire to acquire His love in this world and in the hereafter because Allah said:
“Fasting is for Me and I give the reward of it.”
- THE PILGRIMAGE IN SHARIAT AND TARIQAT
The pilgrimage in Shariat means visiting the Kaaba obeying all the requirements. If this is done with all the requirements of it, you can get the reward. If not, the reward is void because God commands to perform it with all its requirements.
“Make the pilgrimage and visit the Sacred House for the sake of Allah!” (Al-Baqarah, 196)
We can list the conditions of the Pilgrimage as follows:
Wearing Ihram (garb worn by the pilgrim), paying visit and making Tawaf (seven fold circumambulation) to the Kaaba, making a halt in the plains of Mount Arafat, to spend the night in the Muzdalife, to sacrifice an animal at Mina, coming to Harem performing the Tawaf to the Kaaba, drinking water from the well of Zemzem and praying two rak’ats in the Makam-ı Ibrahim (A.S.) (a stone associated with Abraham near the Kaaba in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca).
After that, things that were forbidden by Allah during the pilgrimage became legitimate. The reward of the pilgrimage performed in this way is being released from the Hell. Allah said:
“Whoever enters there is safe.” (The Imrans, 97)
After all these requirements, another Tawaf is done and you turn back to native land. May Allah will it for you and for us!
The Pilgrimage of Tariqat: You need to get prepared for this journey and you need certain things during this journey. The first preparation is to incline towards an owner of inculcation (suggestion) and getting some things from him. Then, remembering God verbally thinking the meanings of them. Remembering God means: Reciting the sentence “LA İLAHE İLLALLAH”. After this remembrance, the heart becomes lively and you start to do the remembrance of Allah from inside until your inner world becomes pure.
After this purity, the attributive names of God must be continued with the Divine Lights of Jamal (the Beauty) for the Secret Kaaba to be apparent. This task of purification was ordered to the Prophet Abraham and the Prophet Ishmael with the following verse:
“Keep My house clean for My visitors!”(Hajj, 26)
The Kaaba in Mecca should be kept clean for the servants who will visit it. The inner Kaaba should also be kept clean for the glance of Allah. This purification is better and more deserving and necessary compared to the other one.
After that comes the entering to Ihram with the Divine Light of the Holy Spirit. Then, you go into the Heart Kaaba and make the arrival Tawaf with the word ALLAH, which is the second name, after that you go into the Arafat of the Heart, the place of silent and fervent prayer, and stay there with “HU”, which is the third name. The fourth name to be followed is “HAQ”. After doing them, you go into the Muzdalife of the Heart “FUAD (precardium)” connecting the interval between the fifth name “HAY (Alive, Living, Everlasting one)” and the sixth name “KAYYUM (Eternal, Ever-Standing, Self-Abiding, Self-Existing One)”. Then, you go to secret Mina and stay there and sacrifice the Nafs-i Mutmainne by reciting the seventh name “KAHHAR (Crusher, Dominant)”. The name “KAHHAR” opens the door of “non-existence”, and draws the curtains of blasphemy .This spiritual state is explained with the following Sacred Hadith of our Prophet:
“Belief and misbelief each has a rank above the Throne. They are considered as the veils between the Lord and His servant. One of them is white and the other is black.”
After that, the head of the Holy Spirit is shaved from the physical and mortal qualities and the eighth name is recited there. The ninth name is recited in the Harem of SECRET. After that comes the entrance of the region “Akif”, the recitation of the tenth name is continued in the state and the manifestation of the name SAMED (Eternal, Everlasting, satisfier of all needs) is seen there having no shapes or likes. Then tawaf (circumambulation) starts and it is performed seven times. Here, the six detail names and the eleventh name are continued. After that wine is drunk by the hand of intimacy. This wine is told us with the following verse:
“Their Lord made them drink pure wine.” (Insan, 21)
The cup, here, is the twelfth name. The veils are removed from the everlasting face afterwards. You see Him with His Divine Light. There is no similarity or a shape of that world.
“No eyes have seen that world, no ears have heard it, no hearts of mortals remembered it.”
The speech of Allah the Exalted is not made with letters or sound (verbally or orally). The most high pleasure which the physical heart cannot comprehend is the pleasure at the moment of seeing Allah and His addressing.
After this, all the wicked actions become good and all the forbidden become legitimate. They are done with the repetition of the Unity name. Allah says:
“Those who believe and do good works, for then God will change their sins to good actions.” (Furqan, 70)
By this, you get rid of all the wicked actions and have no fear and sorrow.
“Be awake (know that) the servants of Allah have nothing to fear and regret.” (Yunus, 62)
The above verse informs us this state. May Allah bestow upon us these states with His grace and generosity!
Afterwards, the last Tawaf begins and it is completed with the repetition of all the divine names and the return to native land starts. This native land is in the world of Nearness (Certainty) “YAKÎN”, and this is done with the repetition of the twelfth name.
These explanations are as much as we can comprehend and say. It is impossible to report the events beyond this because the mind, reason, intellect are not able to comprehend it. Our Prophet (A.S.) says concerning this secrecy:
“There is such knowledge that it stays as if a hidden treasure, no one can know it except those who acquire divine Knowledge.”
When this knowledge is mentioned, the Wise do not deny them. The Gnostics understand them inwardly; the scholars take them outwardly. The knowledge of the Wise is the secrecy of Allah the Exalted. He knows what the others do not know. In a verse, it is said.
“They can grasp none but that part of His knowledge which HE wills.” (Al-Baqarah, 255)
Those who learn this knowledge are the Prophets and the Friends of God.
He also says: “Allah knows the most secret and the most hidden.” (Ta-Ha, 7)
And also: “There is no God but Allah.” (Al-Baqarah, 255)
He says: “His are the most gracious names.” (Ta-Ha, 8)
He who knows best is ALLAH... (12)
Belief, the knowledge of God and all kinds of Worships for Allah written above enable man to be close to his Lord spiritually and with heart. This approach is called “the Path of Allah-The Tariqat of Muhammad”. This is the real definition of Tariqat. In Islam, all the matters concerning faith and all kinds of worship first of all; the Ziqr-remembrance belongs to Tariqat. It is the path which leads spirit to Allah.
The others, such as; the essentials of the Tariqats and the similar principles are the branches or the details but not the basics of Tariqat. They are the component parts. The basic essentials of Tariqat are belief and worships. It is to learn the metaphysical realities and the realities of belief and also to worship and serve the Lord.
It is to love the Lord and to encounter Divine Love. Those who love Allah, love the Prophet, those who love the Prophet love the Prophet’s Family and the Friends of God (Walis) who are their heirs. (13)
The Tariqat of Muhammad consists of all kinds of worships for Allah (14), the love for the Prophet and his representatives and for his spiritual heirs, and also swearing fealty to Him, prostration before Him affectionately, serving Him, making contact with His divine face and divine Spirit, Remembrance (Ziqr), ritual prayer, fasting, alms giving, repentance, (Takbir: pronouncing the formula “Allahu Ekber-God is the Most Great”), salawat (pronouncing the formula calling God’s benediction on the Prophet and his Family), showing love, respect and service to the Prophet and his Family, all of them are called worship. The exalted Tariqat of Muhammad is based on belief and worship Allah whom he believes in, but first of all the Remembrance of God. The rest is the Shariat, which means Canonical Jurisprudence of Islam.
(12) See: Sırrül Esrar by Abdulkadir Geylani, trans. by A. Akçiçek, Rahmet Publ. 1968-İstanbul.
(13) The Friends of God who are from the Companions and the People of Muhammad.
(14) “Namaz” (ritual prayer) fends away the indecency, evil and adultery but the foremost duty is to remember God.” (Prayer is a worship, but remembrance is the greatest worship.) (Al-Anqabut, 45)
“When you forget, remember your God-Lord!” (Al-Kahf, 24)
Remembrance is a continuous worship, for this reason it is the greatest worship.
“Obey Allah and His Prophet!” (Ahzab, 33)
“Those who obey (who swear fealty to Him) obey Allah. The hand of Allah is on their hands.” (Al-Fath, 10)
He who has obeyed the Prophet has obeyed Allah. He who has sworn fealty to the Prophet, has sworn fealty to Allah. Everyone may obey without swearing fealty. If a person obeys God, His Apostle and His spiritual deputy for his fear of someone else except Allah or for his benefit, he becomes a hypocrite and a liar because obedience is visible. Swearing fealty is both visible and spiritual which comes from the heart. The real worship, obedience and swearing fealty is done willingly and with free will, otherwise, it is hypocrisy. Hypocrisy is a secret polytheism and a hypocrite is a secret polytheist.
In Islam, all kinds of worship: first of all “swearing fealty (establishing a tie)” and “making contact” with the Holy Spirit of the Prophet as well as Remembrance, ritual prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving and so on.... are the spiritual path, the Tariqat of Muhammad which draws the spirit of man near to Allah.
It means to know the metaphysical realities (reported with divine messages) called Gnosis-Marifat the knowledge of Reality. The great Masters of Sufism called “Gnosis” as Sufism or Mysticism.
The knowledge of Sufism, in other words-“the Knowledge of Ledunni” means to learn the realities of belief the Koran and the Prophet reported. This is called “Sufism” These subjects have already been explained thoroughly in our books which we have written so far such as: “VARLIK (Existence)”, “İSLAM’DA MEZHEPLER ve YÜKSELİŞ (Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending)”, “GÜNAHSIZLAR (The Sinless)”, “İNSAN’DA YÜKSELME (Ascension in Man)” and “MUHAMMED-İSA ADEM,(Muhammad-Jesus-Adam)” (15)
The believer who follows the Path of Muhammad (including all kinds of worship and service for Allah) approaches the Greatest Spirit (the Reality of Muhammad and the Pure Person of Allah). He becomes a mukarrebun -one who is near to Allah (the favourite of Allah)- and when he becomes a mukarrebun, he becomes one of the Friends of God, he falls in love with the eternal beauty of God called “Jamal” and he reaches God. The promising ones among them are chosen for the Gnosis of Haq and they become a Wise person.
(15) See: “Varlık”, 1974- İstanbul, “İslâmda Mezhepler ve Yükseliş (The Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending)”, 1988- İzmir, “Günahsızlar (The Sinless)”, 1992- Malatya, “İnsan’da Yükselme (Ascension in Man)”, 1992- Malatya, “Muhammad-İsa-Adem”, 1993- Malatya, “Existence”, 1998- Alanya, “Muhammad-Jesus-Adam”, 1999- Alanya.
Distributed by: Doğan Dağıtım-Malatya
Therefore, each Wali-the Friend of God-reaches Haq and falls in love with the Jamal of Haq but does not become the possessor of Gnosis-Arif (Gnostic). He finds the love and union with Allah, which is the result of Tariqat, he also becomes the religious Teacher of Tariqat and he is assigned with the duty of “Seyr-i Süluk-the path of meeting God (Progress in the Spirual Path)”.
Those who become a Wali-saint in this path acquire the Knowledge of Ledunni. This knowledge is learnt by meeting of the spirits. (*) This is the knowledge taught to the spirit of the believer by the spirits of Gnostics. He may also speak with the Supreme Spirit and learn from Him.
This knowledge called as “İlm-i Hikmet or İlm-i Marifet (Theosophia)” is also named as “Sufism” or “Islamic Sufism” by the Religious Leaders of Tariqat.
This knowledge -the Articles of Faith- is learnt from the Great Spirit or the Spirits of the Friends of God who are the successors of Him but not using the Partial Intellect. This education can also be face to face if that Wise person is alive or from the Spirit of Him in the inner world or from the spiritual teachers who died. All of them are the teaching of Reality. These realities are: “the Knowledge of the Unity of Allah”, “the Unity of His Attributions”, “the Unity of His Deeds” and the “Unity of His Manifestations”. It also means to learn the Supreme Spirit (the Reality of Muhammad), Spirits, Angels, Heavens, Hell, Divinity, Rububiyet (Divine Lordship), Secrecy, devotion to God with faith and obedience as well as learning the Apostleship, Sainthood, the Book (the Words of Allah), the Mission of the Prophets, Faith, God’s preordaining, the Eternity of God (He exists in eternity), His unity, the reason of His Manifestations and the Creation of the Worlds, the Universe and how He made them.
According to Sufism, all things, all the Creation, and Universe were created from the Divine Light of God’s face which is called as “Haqikat-ı Muhammediye” or “ the first Spirit”, “the Universal (Cosmic) Spirit”, “the first Manifestation of Allah” but not from the absence or nothingness (Adam). There is no place where He does not exist so nothing can come into existence from nothing. The absolute Existence is infinite and eternal and has no sides. He has also encompassed everything He has manifested or created from His Divine Light. There is no non-existence. The existence exists and has no sides. If He has a side, He is limited and you give a shape to Allah who is the Absolute Existence.
(*) Although Hazrat Moses was a Prophet, he learnt the Knowledge of Ledun from Hazrat Khıdır who was neither a Prophet nor an Apostle. This is confirmed by the Koran.
“Ela innehu bi külli şey’in muhit-Surely, He (Allah) has encompassed everything.” (Fussilat, 54)
The Absolute Existence Allah, who is eternal, the first of the first, the most Divine and who exists definitely is One. He is the Unique One who has no sides, no similarity on account of being infinite and limitless Divine Light. He is the only One because two infinite and unlimited beings cannot exist. Then, Allah, who is the Absolute Existence, is Sole. He is One. There is no One like Him.
Things are one by one and there are other ones like them but the Oneness of Allah is not like the “one” in numbers. For instance: in number ten (10), there are 10 times “one”. There are also other “ones” but the Absolute Existence Allah is the Sole One. He is infinite and has no sides.
Therefore, since the existence of ALLAH is compulsory, the non-existence of the non-existent is also compulsory. There is no non-existence. The existence of the Existence is compulsory because the non-existence is of the non-existent is inevitable.
If non-existence is accepted, the Absolute Presence Allah becomes limited as if He has an end somewhere, He becomes restricted and as if non-existence starts beyond Him. If this is accepted, you deny Allah who is the Absolute Existence and you put a limit to Allah.
No place where Allah has an end can be considered because Existence (Energy) does not end. If “presence” is proved, then there is no non-existence. It means: if the presence of the Existence is proved, no limit can be attributed to Him. There is no non-existence. Existence exists non-existence does not exist.
The word “non-existence” is used in grammar as an agent in order to define existence more fluently and to prove the presence of Existence.
So “Gnosis-Marifat (Divine Nature)” means learning the Absolute Presence, His manifestations, how and why the inner and outer worlds were created, the Throne, Lahut, Jeberut and Nasut (things), the Creation of the the Universe from the Absolute Presence, the way and reason of the creation. Furthermore, the opposite Attributions of Allah, the opposition of them and how this contradiction reflects both on human-beings and on the nature and also the contradiction-dualism which is caused by it and learning the divine dialectic. (16)
“The origin of dialectic is Divine.” (Allah is One)
“Allah created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is in there and also man with His two hands.” (17)
It means that Existence is One and His attributions are two. His attributions are held in two categories as “Jalal (Divine Majesty)” and “Jamal (Divine Beauty)”. The Koran reported this 1400 years ago. The two hands refer to Jamal and Jalal Attributes.
The real sources of Hegel (18) are the works of Islamic Sufism. Abdulkadir-i Geylani (19), Abdulkerim-i Jili (20), Muhyiddin-i Arabi (21) explained what he said in their books 800 years earlier than Hegel, in details.
You may read the works called “Sırrül Esrar” by Hazrat Abdulkadir Geylani; “İnsan-ı Kamil” by Abdül Kerim Jili; “Füsus ül Hikem” by Muhyiddin-i Arabi for further information if you wish.
(16) The origin of things is the condensed energy, Divine Light.
For detailed information, see “Muhammad-Jesus-Adam” by Kâzım Yardımcı, Alanya 1999 / Yardımcı Publications, 5
(17) See: Abraham: 19, Sad: 75 (the Koran Verses)
(18) Hegel, Fredich (1770-1831): A well-known German Philosopher. The founder of “Dialectic Logic” system.
(19) Sayyid Abdulkadir Geylani: Gawsul Azam (1077-1165). He honored the world in “Gilan-Baghdad”. His sacred Tomb is in Baghdad. “Allah created the Universe from the Divine Light of the Spirit of Muhammad which is the first and greatest Spirit of Allah.”
See: Sirrul Esrar by Abdulkadir Geylani, The introduction Chapter.
(20) Abd-al Kerim Jili: He is famous for his book called “İnsan-ı Kâmil (Perfect Man)”. He is a well-known Sufi.
(21) Muhyiddin-i Arabi: (1165 Andolusia-1240 Damascus) He is a famous Sufi for the Subject “The Unity of Allah-Vahdet-i Vücud (Existential Monism)”. He lived in Andalusia-Tunis, Morocco, Anatolia, Baghdad, Egypt and Damascus. See also information “Fusus-ul Hikem (The Bezels of Wisdom)”
Sayyid Ahmed er Rufai and also Junayd al Baghdadi (22), Sırri Sakati (23), Maruf-u Kerhi (24) and many other Sufis have explained in Anatolian Sufi Literature that Existence is One, His Manifestations are two. (Two Attributes of Allah as Jamal and Jalal)
(22) Junayd al Baghdad: He is known with the title “Seyyidüttaife- The Head of the Sufis”. Died in Baghdad.
(23) Sırri Sakati: He is the uncle of Junayd al Baghdad. He is a strong possessor of Gnosis in the Knowledge of “Unity-Tawhid”. Died in 865, His sacred tomb is in Shewniziye in Baghdad.
(24) Maraf-u Kerhi: Died in Baghdad in 815: He is the murid (the follower of the path of Allah) of Davud-u Tai. He is the Master of Sırri Saqati. His tomb is near Tigris River.
THE ORIGIN OF SUFISM
Sufism emerged from TEKKE (place of repose, refuge and asylum) not from MEDRESE (Theological School). There is no Sufi that has been a religious teacher of a Tariqat or there is nobody who has become a teacher of a Tariqat without having served a Religious Teacher (Perfect Man) of a Tariqat. He has become a Perfect Human (Pir, Guide, Master, Patron Saint and Spiritual Director) or a Religious Teacher after being perfected and trained under the education of a Religious Teacher.
In addition, Sufis do not set up belief and if they do, they see themselves as a Prophet then.
Belief is corroborated by the Prophet.
The Sufis explain the (belief) faith that the Prophet set up basing on the Divine Message.
Therefore, Sufis depend on the Divine Message, Revelation and particularly the metaphysical teaching of the Prophet because they refuse the faith formed using partial intellect and the principles of Aristotle Logic of the Philosophers and the logicians. They even accept it as a great insolence showed to the Divine Message and the Prophet.
All the Sufis claim that you cannot reach the Divine Knowledge and solve the realities of the articles of faith even you read millions of books. You cannot learn the metaphysical realities using your simple mind.
If the reason (mind-aqıl) were able to solve these realities, Allah would not have sent His Divine Messages and His Prophets and everybody would have learnt the Spiritual Realities reported by the Koran, the Torah and the Psalms of David and the Bible using their own minds.
All people who have a partial intellect would find his own god through thinking and reading. They would learn Him, His attributes (His beautiful names), the world of Spirits and Angels, the metaphysical realities and beings using their own mind without the need of the Prophet and Revelation. As a result of this, every rationalist thinker would be a Prophet. This is not fair!
Human mind (reason) is able to search and learn the physical world and the written Islamic Law. The scholar and the founder of the Canonical Jurisprudence is also the Divine Messenger Prophet. The verses about Shariat are incontrovertible and clear.
Apparently, Muslim Sufis, who have been explaining the metaphysical teaching of the Prophet and the real meaning of the reality of the Principles of Faith directly by holding the Divine Message –the Revelation and the holy Spirit of the Divine Messenger but not by forming a new belief and using Philosophy and the Knowledge of Theology, which is also a kind of Philosophy, have only one source: The Divine Message-the Koran and our Divine Messenger Hz. Prophet Muhammad and His Sacred Sayings.
Sufism is the Divine Knowledge (Gnosis) of Faith and of the articles of faith of Islam. The subject matter of Sufism is related directly with the realities of faith and the source of it is Islam.
It is the belief part of religion and the Knowledge of the realities of faith and “Man Araf” (to know one’s self) Sufism does not deal with the Canonical Jurisprudence which is the teaching of law, economy and social aspects of Islam. This is left to the expounders of Islamic Law. The founder and the scholar of Shariat formed with the Book and Sunnat is again the Prophet. The verses and the hadiths about Shariat are incontrovertible. They are not metaphorical or confusing. These verses and sayings are so clear and definite that every Muslim understands them very easily.
The Canonical Jurisprudence developed with interpretations beyond the Book and Sunnat has been set up by the expounders of Islamic Laws. Judgment in legal matters is permitted in Islam. The interpreters of the law are not the Prophets, therefore they can be right or wrong.
Consequently, none of the religious sects can be 100 percent true. Each religious sect has good and bad points.
Ijtihad is the interpretation of man, whose proof or reason is given and whose accordance with the Book and Sunnat are claimed by him. The opinions of the expounders of Law who do not have the quality of Prophecy are not divine. The Book and Sunnat have descended from the Heaven but the religious sects have not come from the Heaven. Ijtihad (religious opinions and independent, individual judgements or interpretations) is permitted in Islam and it is also necessary. Therefore, the religious sects and the interpreters cannot be denied.
People and the Religious Leader of Believers benefit from them. It enables and helps the progression and improvement.
Islam is not static either. It is dynamic.
“Külle yevmin höve fi şa’n - He (Allah) is in an activity, in a manifestation every instant.” (Al-Rahman, 29)
Allah is alive, He is everlasting, so, Allah’s work (task) never finishes and it has not finished yet. The first Creation and the new Creation continue. They are confirmed by the Koran.
In fact, ijtihad belongs to the Commander of the Faithful and his governors. The Prophet gave the right to express his opinions to his governor whom he assigned, named Muaz among his Companions. According to this hadith, ijtihad should belong to the Leader of Islam who is at the rank of commanding. The others may express their opinions if they are asked by the Commander. The person who expresses his opinions should be an expert in that field. The Commander of Islam and the Scholars of Islam always consulted for the opinions of the experts in that very knowledge. They may either accept it or refuse it. He acts according to his own judgment. The responsibility is on the Commander or on his governor but on the person who expresses his opinion.
THE TARIQAT OF MUHAMMAD
Sufism is concerned with faith and the worship which leads to God in religion. Another name of it is “Tariqat” or the “Tariqat of Muhammediye”. (25)
Professor Mehmed Ali Ayni (died in 1945) states in his article titled “Tariqats in Us”. (Perseverance 25th February 1337-1921) as follows:
“Islam is actually to confirm Allah and His Apostle and this confirmation was corroborated with an agreement later on. This treaty was concluded between Muslims and their Apostle on a dangerous and risky day. Believers held the Prophet’s hand, promised him not to leave Him. This sincere union saved them from that danger. Therefore, today a Muslim finds a person who is adorned with good manners and moral beauties, who is noble, spiritually distinguished, reliable and a man of his word, deserved love and confidence. Then, he repents all of sins and promises to refrain from telling lies, stealing and killing and from doing all forbidden acts in his presence. He shows Allah, His Apostle and one of the great persons who established a Tariqat as witnesses to renew and repeat the first treaty. This process means involving in the Tariqat, which is the inner side of Shariat, or else, it is not to eat soup in Tekke. Then, all the behaviors and actions of this person is under the observation and supervision of this great man to whom he has sworn fealty. I do not think that there is a more effective, useful and virtuous moral protocol than this in the world.”
(25) The Shariat of Muhammad is the Canonical Jurisprudence. The Knowledge of Shariat is also the knowledge of Jurisprudence. This knowledge is exterior not spiritual. This knowledge about faith is spiritual knowledge. The realities of Faith cannot be learnt with partial Intellect. Reason (mind) accepts them but it cannot solve them. The knowledge of Faith and all kinds of worship is the “Tariqat of Muhammad”.
Another example about swearing fealty and remembrance is as follows: (26)
Hz. Ali (K.V.), who is the gate of Knowledge, was sitting with the companions in the presence of the Most High Prophet: He requested saying: “O the Prophet of Allah, let my parents be sacrificed to you, please tell us the easiest, the nearest and the virtuous way for the slaves to reach Hz. Allah!”
Hz. Prophet (S.A.V.): “Ali, come closer! Place your knees near my knees, close your eyes, imagine my face and repeat what I say to you: “Fa’lem ennehu Lâ ilahe illallah”. They repeated three times. He told Ali to continue this Ziqr.
Hz. Prophet (S.A.V.) whispered the formula of unity “Lâ ilâhe illallah” into the ear of Hz. Abubaqr in the cave kneeled down while they were hiding during the Emigration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Hz. Abu Baqr had witnessed and been inspired by some revelations with the secret told in the hadith as: “the eyes have not seen, the ears have not heard it yet”.
Hz. Prophet Muhammad told Hz. Omar to pronounce “Lâ” first and then “ilâhe” separately and “illallah” together three times while he was telling them to continue this Ziqr.
Once, Hz. Prophet visited Hz. Osman to offer consolation for the loss (death) of the wife of Hz. Osman. He told him not to think about the worldly affairs and inspired “Lâ ilâhe illallah”.
There are two great heirs of the Tariqat of Muhammad:
Hz. Ali (K.V.) from His Household (Ahl-al Bayt)
- Hz. Abu Baqr (r.a.) from His Companions.
The Tariqat of Muhammad continues with them because the Spirit, which is the Command of Allah, the great Mohammedan Spirit, does not die. The body dies, the Spirit is drawn to or hidden either in the World of Decree, in Melekut or in Barzah or in the canals or tunnels between Nasut and Melekut. Spirit is breathed into only human being and Spirit is Divine Light.
(26) “Ariflerin Menkibeleri, Menkib-ül Arifun, trans. By Tahsin Yazıcı, MEB Publications, pp. 708-709 Istanbul 1989, vol.3, p.405 from MEB Publications.
Mind and thinking (contemplation) are based on Spirit. A man who has no mind is like an animal that walks upright, so what makes a man human is the Spirit, which has a mind and reason.
Man is Mind-Reason-Spirit. The rest of him is flesh, bone and blood. Animals also have them. Spirit is drawn back to his original place in a dead body, as it will not function anymore.
- Body returns to earth, which is the origin of it.
- Spirit returns to the world of Decree (Command) to his origin.
The life (soul) in a body is just like the liveliness of an animal. It is a biological body consisted of cells. It is alive with water. They are the reflections of the living and active attributes of Allah.
The liveliness in human body does not come from the Spirit and Mind, which is the greatest sign of it, but it comes from water just like in animals and plants. And water is sacred. The holiness of water is confirmed with the verse of the Koran. Then, the attribute of life (liveliness) is hidden in water, but this has not been discovered by physical science yet. There is a hidden mystery in water. We accept water inorganic but Allah says: “All things are alive in water”. (Al-Zuqhruf, 11) He says that water is holy. The Positive Science may also solve this mystery and discover that water is not 100 percent inorganic.
We wish this mystery would be solved. Then, it will be learnt how organism-life passes into matter and the mystery of life-soul will be solved as mind is an attribute of Spirit. Mind and soul are not matter same as color is not matter. Color has no atoms like soul and mind and therefore color, mind and soul are not matter.
“Everything is alive with water.” (27)
Spirit, which is the decree of Allah, does not die. The Spirits of the Prophets and Saints, who are all pious, do not die and the pious are the righteous. They are the people who are close to Allah.
“The righteous dwell in gardens watered by running brooks, honorably seated in the presence of their Mighty King (Allah).” (Qamer, 54, 55)
The people of Sunnat and the adherents of Shiites have already accepted that the Spirit of Muhammad and Spiritual guidance is alive. They agree that the Spirits of the Prophets of Allah, the Spirits of Apostles, Saints and Believers are bright, alive and divine.
Spirit does not die, the physical body dies. Allah says for the unbelievers who do not belong in this group:
“La yemutu fiha vela yahya - They neither live nor die there.” (Ta-Ha, 74)
They are not divine or bright but they are very vulgar and common. Their shapes changed from the shape of a human, they are in a very filthy condition and half alive. This is told in various chapters of the Koran. (28)
The Tariqat of Muhammad continues by means of the Divine Spirits of Pure People in this world through the Paths of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Abu Baqr. No force can stop this as it is related to Spirit. There is no physical force to stop this continuation.
(27) “Allah created every living thing with water.” (Al-Nur, 45)
(28) See Baqarah: 162, Nisa: 169, Mümin: 76, Bayyinah: 6
The subject of Tariqat of Muhammad is: Seyr-i Süluk (spiritual journey to Allah, progress on the spiritual path), the knowledge of the Realities of worships. Because, you cannot approach Allah without worship, remembrance, service and contemplation (divine contemplation of Muhammad).
The remembrance of Allah and the social intercourse (conversation) of Great Persons cause love and affection. All of them are possible with the love of Holy Muhammad and His Family (Ahl al Bayt). (May God comment and salute them!)
To love the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) is an obligatory duty. (29) May Allah enable us to love the Pure, the Divine Ahl al Bayt who are: “Hz. Ali, Hz. Fatimah, Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn” heartily and follow their path!
Their path and religious sect is based merely on the Book and Sunnat. The Tariqat of Muhammad and Sufism are sourced from the Book and Sunnat. It depends on Divine Message.
Tariqat means acquiring the Gnosis of Realities of Faith, first of all, making a contact with the Holy Spirit, remembering Allah and doing all kinds of worship such as ritual prayer, fasting, alms giving, helping the poor, pilgrimage and doing all kinds of good deeds, because Spirit-man is drawn near to his Lord and reaches his Lord through belief and worship.
“O serene Soul! Return to your Lord, joyful and pleasing in His sight.” (Al-Fajr, 28)
This is done through spiritual connection, remembrance and all kinds of good works (all kinds of worship) and with the Prayer moral support and favor of the Holy Spirit. (All of them are possible with the permission of the Lord: Bi İznillah) The spirit of the follower of God (aspirant) exalts to God, to Throne gradually step by step. His heart is improved and his self is purified.
Meanwhile Allah manifests this heart and the Divine Lights of the Prophets appear there. The spirit becomes holy as he is ascending. He rises to Melekut from Nasut, to Jeberut and Lahut. He annihilates in the Holy Spirit of the Religious Teacher, in the Spirit of the Prophet, in Allah and abides in Him (Fenafipir, Fenafiresul, Fenafillah and Bekabillah).
Union with God is done by the Person. He finds the Pure Existence, the Absolute Presence. He melts in Him. This is called: “Seyr-i illallah” until here, then “Seyr-i Fillah” begins and there is no end to journeying in Allah. He sees the Absolute Beauty and the Perfection in the Absolute Person.
He also contemplates them in the Divine Light of Muhammad, in the heart, in Natiqa and in Hu, in Sır-Secrecy and in the essence of the heart.
He dies before he dies (His self dies). (30) He learns Men Araf.
He becomes a Wise Person (Arif) with the mystery of the divine Hadith “He who knows his self knows his Lord.”
He learns and sees the mysteries and secrets of the Prophets with the Eye of Spirit. He shares the secrets of the Prophets and becomes an object and heir to the Knowledge and Mysteries of them.
Shortly, he becomes a Perfect Human while being immature.
The sign of them is first of all “honesty” and the good manners of Hz. Shah Imam Ali and the laudable moral qualities of the Prophet Muhammad. May God favor them on all of us: Edeb Ya Hu..
(29) “Such is God’s promise to His Servants who believe and do good works. Say (O Muhammad): For this, I demand of you no recompense. I ask you only to love My Family (My relatives), (Shura, 23)
(30) “Men arafe nefsehu, fekat arafe Rabbehu-He who knows his self, knows his Lord.”
CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENTS
There are six kinds of crimes and their punishments in the Criminal Law of Islam. They are as follows:
1. Murder: Retaliation
2. Theft : Precaution
3. Adultery: Flogging
4. Slander: Flogging or the Rejection of Testimony
5. Banditry: Execution
6. Mischievousness: Exile (banishment)
There are also Reprimanding Punishments permitted to be practiced by the Prophet and the Religious Leaders (like the Four Caliphs). They are between 3-79 beatings with a stick. It is not over 79. The judgment belongs to the Prophet, the Four Caliphs and similar personalities. Unfortunately, after the Four Caliphs and Hz. Hasan, no similar person has become in charge of the Muslims compared to these five respectable persons. On the contrary, the Kings, Shahs and Emperors ruled them and they lived in palaces and castles luxuriously and magnificently. They insisted on their own commands as Shariat.
1- MURDER: It means killing or injuring someone intentionally with premeditation. The punishment of this is retaliation, which means to do the same. Allah says for retaliation:
“Zalike tahfifün min Rabbiküm ve Rahmeh-Retaliation is a merciful dispensation. In retaliation you have safeguard for your lives.” (Al-Baqarah, 178)
Retaliation is a changing punishment preventing the death of many people and cherishing revenge. There is no absolute command as cutting his head off. There were not any guns, pistols and bombs during the Prophet’s time. They used swords and arrows as weapons. Criminals were killed with these weapons. There had not been an event of retaliation during our Prophet’s time. Our Prophet did not have anybody’s head cut off. Neither did the Four Caliphs. There is no certain tradition narrated about it in the History of Islam. The only event happened during the Caliphate of Imam Hasan: He killed the cursed İbni Mülcem, who killed (martyred) Hz. Ali during ritual prayer, as retaliation, with the order of Hz. Ali. In retaliation, if one of the heirs of the murdered person (his brothers, his sons or his fathers) forgives him, retaliation is not applied then. If one of them says, “I have forgiven and given it up” or “I want compensation”, the murderer is released and retaliation is not applied even if the rest of the heirs insist on retaliation. Therefore, the aim of Allah is certainly not to kill him or to cut his head off with a sword.
Allah and His Apostle are compassionate and merciful. They always support forgiveness. The intention is to satisfy the sufferer. This compensation can also be blood money in order to prevent bloodshed and revenge. Therefore, retaliation is an effective precaution to maintain the lives of others but not to kill them.
2- THEFT (Robbery): There are two kinds of thefts as open and secret thefts;
Open Theft: This means breaking into a house or a shop for stealing. First, it is investigated: If the thief burgled for his necessity, no punishment is applied. When Hz. Omar was asked why he had not cut the hand of the thief, he said that the thief had committed that crime because of his poverty and necessity and added that he was hungry and poor. In another event, the girl whose hand was supposed to be cut by the Prophet belonged to a rich family. Her reason of stealing was not poverty. Who was this girl? Who was the father of this girl in this well-known incident? These are not explained in traditions and this event was left as a mystery, so it can be discussed.
Secret Theft: It means to exploit people in various ways such as: exploiting labor, national sources, the profits of nations, trade exploitation, buying at a low price and selling it at a high price etc... These are also considered as theft and therefore the hands of many should be cut off then. The rich people’s hands will be cut off not the hands of the poor ones who steal for his necessity. The hands of the notables who have made their wealth illegally are cut off. Can the idea of cutting hands be interpreted as preventing exploitation or abolishing poverty and socializing the state? We also understand from the practice of Hz. Omar that he did not cut the hands of the robbers but he provided them a subsistence allowance from the public treasury. Allah also says: “If thieves repent, He will pardon them” (Maidah, 39) If Allah pardons, he is not punished but he should promise not to steal again.
3- ADULTERY: In the second verse of the Chapter Nur (Light) it is said: “The adulterer and the adulteress shall each be given a hundred lashes”. (The second verse of Chapter Nur is very clear.)
There is no difference between man and woman in this matter. The woman should be chaste and married and if she is a stained widow, the punishment is reduced then. Harlots should be isolated in a distant place from chaste women. It is clearly understood from this punishment that the aim is to protect chaste women and stop this indecent action so that it may be a warning to other honest women and men, but not to torture them or to make them suffer... The aim is to protect chastity and honor because “Adultery is foul and indecent - Vela tagrabüzzina innehü kane fahişeh.” (Isra, 32)
Sayyid Kutup is dubious about stoning to death and decides that the punishment of adultery is 100 lashes. The second verse of Chapter Nur is very clear so he is suspicious and uncertain about the traditions that are contrary to verses. The stick used for beating should be an index finger width, flat and polished. It is proved that the person who applies the punishment cannot raise the stick higher than shoulder level, which is 90 degrees height. (See: Islamic Law and Jurisprudence Matters by Osman Keskioğlu, Diyanet İşleri Publ - Religious Affairs Publ.) Since he cannot raise the stick higher than shoulder level, the aim is not to torture but to prevent it because punishment is applied in public in order to give others a warning.
4- SLANDER (Slandering an honest-chaste woman): As it is known God requires four witnesses instead of two witnesses for the crime of adultery. “Bi erbaati şüheda - four witnesses...” (Al-Nur, 4) It is understood that this is very important for God as it is a matter of honor and chastity, which may result many risks.
For this reason, God orders to give 80 lashes to the slanderer if he cannot prove his claim. In addition, there will also be no contradiction in the witnessing of four witnesses. They must say they have seen the adultery personally. It means that the statements of the four witnesses must be the same. If one of the statements were unlike the other statements, the four witnesses would be punished with 80 lashes and that chaste woman would be acquitted and she is not guilty anymore. Therefore, the lawmakers of Islam have made the proof of adultery very difficult and they say that Our Lord has willed that the honor and chastity should not be oppressed.
5- BANDIT: “One hand and the feet of the bandit shall be cut of on alternate sides” (Al-Maidah, 33). This is completely a physical punishment and has no comment or a metaphorical meaning. If he repents and mends his way, Our Lord says: “He will forgive him as He has forgiven the thief.” Allah is our Most High and Merciful God.
6- MISCHIEF MAKER: According to the Koran, the punishment for this crime is: “Those who spread disorder in the land shall be put to death or executed or banished from the country” (Al-Maidah, 33). This punishment is for those who make war with guns against the Divine System of Allah, which the Prophet has established through the Koran and the Sunnat, in order to abolish it afterwards. It does not insist on his death.
In the practice of it, those who spread disorder were not put to death during the time of our Prophet and the Four Caliphs. They were either kept in observation or banished so as not to cause mischief.
Unfortunately, the Divine System was abolished after our Prophet and the Four Caliphs. Sufyan and Mervan Families from the Umayyad, who were the leaders of the mischief and the mischief- makers themselves, turned the Caliphate into Monarchy and Sovereignty whose rulers were the cruel Kings. There has not been a Divine System, which Allah desires since then after the Four Caliphs in any Islamic Nations so that this punishment will be applied on the mischief-maker who spoils the Divine System mentioned in the Koran. We always emphasize that none of the monarchical system ruled by Kings etc. is an Islamic System, which is a Divine System. Islamic System is democratic and based on freedom and social equity. There is neither a sultanate nor heir to the throne. There is a Prophetic Caliphate in Islam and it lasted 30 years after the Prophet and it is called the period of the Four Caliphs. It was turned to a Monarchical Caliphate afterwards and the people were deceived as it was the Shariat although it was cruelty for 1400 years.
This system of Monarchical Caliphate continued until 23 April 1920 and the Monarchical Caliphate which does not exist in Islam and which depends on cruelty was established by the proclamation of the Republic. This Monarchical Caliphate is still continuing in some countries under different names except in Türkiye. Yet, this system has no relation or similarity to Islamic Caliphate.
But, although the Democracy in the West is not an Islamic system, the Social Democracy in Türkiye is the nearest system to Islamic System as it supports the social equity and freedom, because, Islam commands and defends social equity, the freedom of individual opinions and free conscience and social rights of the laborers.
REPRIMANDING PUNISHMENTS: There are also some rights given to the Prophet apart from the punishments confirmed by the Koran. The Prophet was able to mete out the punishments such as frightening, reprimanding or scolding like beating with a stick or giving financial punishments like the blood money. There is no imprisonment in Islam or in the Prophet’s time. Imprisonment remained from the Kings in History.
In Divine System, you cannot restrict the freedom of individuals. There are two kinds of punishment in Islam: physical or financial punishments. (See the same book by Osman Keskioğlu, DIB Publications)
Our Prophet said that his intercession would be for his people who committed great sins; and Martyrs would also intercede for them. Allah also says that He has some servants whom He gave permission for intercession and that the martyrs will also intercede (Maryam, 87), (Ta-Ha, 109), (Zukhruf, 86)
There are respectable professors in Turkish Universities who are the Scholars of Canonical Jurisprudence (Islamic Law). The last word about the Knowledge of Jurisprudence belongs to them. The scholars who are below their positions do not have any authority on this matter. They are only a technician or a practitioner compared to them.
Our research subject is Sufism therefore our knowledge in other matters may be limited. We want to be an expert only in Sufism. The path (profession, science) that we have chosen is the Knowledge of Sufism.
However, we would like to take the attention of the experts on the light interpretation of the Laws of Shariat and start a discussion on this subject. It is a rule that you should be upright (straight) in the “Fundamentals of Religion (belief) and submissive (light) in the Practice of Religion (actions)”. This is what the important point is.
As we have said before, the matters concerning belief and faith have no relation with Jurisprudence, Practice and four religious Sects.
Selefiyyun: The Wise Sufis and Muslim Saints do not accept to explain the realities of faith according to the Aristotle Logic using abstract (or partial Intellect). It was done by the Philosophers and Theologians of Islam before Religious sects of Belief had been established again during Abbasids 100 years after the Prophet.
Selef: (The Wise and Gnostics, Holy men of old)) They explain and interpret the realities of faith reported with verses, hadiths and divine sayings. They do not attempt to set up beliefs using Logic and reason rationally as the theologians do. (31)
There is also another group of people called “Batinites” from the religious sect of Ismailiye. They claim that the Koran is Divine and it has hidden meanings and that the verses and hadiths have no exterior meanings. This is also wrong.
While interpreting the verses, the Batinites of Ismailiye Sect liken so excessively that the result of it is personification. This is also Formalism called Paganism.
The Koran has both hidden and open meanings. There are interpretations and interpreters of the exterior meanings of the Koran as well as hidden meanings.
For example: Allah mentions about His face, His eyes and His Hands in the Koran and says that He sits on the Throne.
“Errahmanü Alel arşisteva - He sits enthroned on high.” (Ta-Ha, 5)
There are many metaphorical verses similar to this. If you did not explain or interpret these verses, Allah would be given a form then.
Giving a form means paganism, for this reason, Sufis, Ghazzali and great Religious scholars agree that the Koran must be interpreted and it has spiritual and hidden meanings. The only person who is against to this agreement is Ibn-i Taymiyya.
(31) Nowadays a new religious group called as the supporters of Zahiriye Sect (The supporters of Taymiyya) say they are “Selefi (Past oriented traditionists)”. They deny all the religious sects of Jurisprudence, Theology, Philosophy and Sufism (Spiritualism). They say that the Koran and the Holy sayings of the Prophet (Hadiths) have no spiritual, hidden meanings. They are not Selefi but a kind of externalists (formalists)-Zahiriyeciler. According to Ibn Taymiyya, The Koran cannot be explained but the Arabic version of it can be read and translated.... that’s all. They deny the expounders of the Koran but they explain it themselves. It means: it is allowed to them but not to others. They try to monopolize the Knowledge.
This is accepted by Sufis, who are real Selef as well as by the People of Sunnat and the Shiite Sect of Muslims. This is what the truth is.
The Batinites and Externalists are the minorities who have exaggerated and exceeded in Islam.
The evidence of the Selefi who are Gnostics in Belief and of those who follow them, is the Koran Verses, Holy Traditions and the Divine Sayings of the Prophet. The greatest explanators of this are the Prophet and His exalted Companions and those who learned from them. They are the explanators and interpreters of belief but not the founders of it. They do not set up belief. Faith and belief depends on the Koran and Holy Traditions. They can only be explained by the Prophet, by the Wise who are the heirs of the Prophet and by the Great Saints whose intelligence and Spirit have been perfected with the Universal Intellect (the Spirit of Muhammad) through making contact between the Partial Intellect and Universal Intellect. And we can learn from them.
Belief is corroborated by Allah and His Apostle but not by others. Scholastic Theologians (Kelâmcılar) did not make the explanations of the verses and Hadiths. Yet, they made a judgement using partial intellect according to Aristotle Logic about Eternity, innovation, the Person, the Attribution and Faith theoretically. They re-set the belief.
The evidence of the Scholastic Theologians is not the Koran Verses and the Hadith. Their evidence is “Mind and Logic”. They do not explain the Belief according to Verses and Hadiths. The Sufis, who are wise saints, say that, “they cannot accept a belief that is not based on the Koran Verses and Hadiths”.
If a person reads a book about the Fundamentals of the Scholastic Theology, he sees that Scholastic Theologians do not behave in accordance with the Verses and Hadiths but they use reasoning. He sees that they are not interested in the verses and Hadiths about the realities of belief and faith and they do not explain them. They are interested in Existence (Presence, the Person of God), self-existence (whose existence is a necessity), one whose existence is possible, non-existence, existing, eternity, the one that comes into existence afterwards, evident, one that is not self-existent but existed from another essence, atom, space, imagination, the Person and His Attributes, actions, fate etc... They try to explain and prove these matters using reason and partial intellect and through the rules of Aristotle Logic (deduction and induction)... Various religious sects of belief emerged (arose) due to it...
Those subjects had existed in the Greek Philosophy even before the Christ. The Principles of Aristotle Logic passed to Islam Scholars during Abbasids and the Umayyad. They have no relation with the Koran and the Hadiths (Sunnats).
All the realities of Faith and metaphysical matters exist in the Glorious Koran and in the Works of the Prophet. There is no need to seek them in Scholastic Theology and Philosophy.
The danger is: Although Mu’tazile (mostly Shiites) and the Scholars of Sunnat (mostly the followers of Ashary and Maturidy) should have kept these rational and theological judgments suitable with the Koran and the Hadith, the Scholars of Madrasa, who were their supporters tried to suit the verses and hadiths concerning faith to the views of rationalist and scholastic founders of the religious sects.
The most dangerous attempt was: they tried to accept the verses, which were contrary to their beliefs and they abolished and ignored the Holy Sayings of the Prophet.
They accused the Gnostics and the Wise who did not explain the Verses and the Hadiths related to belief according to Ashary, Maturidy and Jubai (Mutazila) for going astray or for being crazy in a very strict, scholastic way.
Whereas; the verses and the Holy Sayings of the Prophet existed even 150 years before Scholastics, Ashary, Maturidy , Jubai (Mutazila) and similar rationalist founders of belief.
Unfortunately, the belief confirmed by the Koran and Hadiths was given up and the remarks of the so-called rationalist scholars were accepted as belief by both the Scholars of Madrasa of the Shiites and Sunnis.
In fact, Sufis are not against the defense of the Existence of Allah, the presence of Spirit and the metaphysical realities by the Philosophers and Scholastic Theologians. On the contrary, they support it and they do the same if necessary. They support whoever struggles for this.
Yet, they are against the philosophical and theological opinions about Allah, His Person, His Attributes, His deeds and qualities.
Defending the Existence of Allah and putting forward ideas about the Attributes of Allah are different matters.
The Knowledge about God and the Reality of God as well as His attributes are reported by the Koran and the Hadiths. Belief is corroborated by Allah and His apostle. The greatest person to explain it is our Most High Prophet, the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) the scholars of his Companions and Sufi saints who are all wise people. They are the righteous predecessors.
Farabi, Ibn-i Sina, Kindi, Ibn-i Rushd, the scholastic theologians of Mutazila: Ashary, Maturidy, who all developed belief using rational evidence, put themselves in the place of Allah and His Apostle because the realities of faith are reported by the Koran, by the Holy Traditions and by the sacred saying of the Prophet.
Sufis even support the Western Philosophers, who defend Allah and religion, as well as the Islam Philosophers and theologians mentioned above. They support Dehri, Descartes, who argue with materialist Philosophy, Spinoza, Kant, Hugo, Goethe and Hegel. Supporting (it is the duty of all the believers to defend God) and accepting a belief formed by Mutazila, Ashary and Maturidy are different things.
The Wise Saints explained the realities, concerning belief, reported by the Koran and Sunnat. Then, the belief of others even the Shiites or the people of Sunnat except the belief of Sufis (the predecessors who are Sufi) is not the belief of Muslims.
However, the Scholars of Madrasa from the people of Sunnat accepted the religious sect of Selefiye in belief. For instance, we are in sympathy with Ashary and Maturidy but we do not accept their belief. We accept Selefi belief but not the belief formed by reasoning. We believe as the righteous predecessors believe. We believe how the experts of Sufism believe.
The religious leader (Pir) of Sufis is Hazrat Imam-ı Hasan al Basri. He acquired Sufism from Hazrat Ali (K.V.) who is the leader of Spiritual Guidance. The Sufis who are the righteous predecessors and Hz. Ghazzali deny the rational methods of Maturidiye and Ashary, they do not deny their judgments which are in accordance with the Book, Sunnat and the belief of Selef-i Salihin (Holy Men of old). They claim that forming up a belief by reasoning and most of their judgments will be contrary to the Book and Sunnat. The great Gnostics who follow the belief of righteous predecessors do not refuse all the statements of Maturidy and Ashary. We also agree with this opinion.
Sufism (Tasawwuf) as known and mentioned in details above is the branch that deals with realities of faith. It is to learn the Koran by means of making contact with the Spirit of the Prophet (A.S.W.), to learn the subjects related to belief and faith such as: Divine Knowledge, Divine Person, His attributes, His Deeds, His works, Fate, spirits, Angels and the journey of the Spirit of men from physical world to beautiful, pleasant world (seyr-i sülûk (progress on the spiritual world) etc... not the knowledge of Jurisprudence.
The Prophet Muhammad (A.S.W.) taught Sufism to Hz. Aliyyel Murtaza and Hz. Abu Bakr Sıddık. The History of Sufism is the witness of this.
Sufism also concerns the Knowledge of God and Love. The experts of Sufism enable some of their adherents to encounter their Lord again by shining their hearts with love and through (with) the Knowledge of God. They impart the secrets of Fenafi Resul (Annihilation in the Prophet), Fenafillah (Annihilation in Allah), Bekabillah which means remaining and abiding in God. They also teach them the realities of faith called “Men Araf” “Men arafe nefsehu, kad arefe Rabbehu - He who knows himself knows his Lord”. (32)
(32) See Binbir Hadis by Şemseddin Yeşil, 1983, Ist. p. 212 and others.
Sufism exists in the Prophet (A.S.W.) Himself and in the Koran because Sufism concerns Faith and Gnosis. The only aim of the Prophet is to increase Divine Knowledge and faith for Allah.
The Prophet (A.S.) is the greatest Gnostic. He is the teacher of the Universe. This characteristic (specialty) exists in other Heavenly Messengers too.
Sufism teach the realities of Angels, Spirit, Prophetic Mission, Sainthood, Prophecy, the Realities of Revelation and Speech, the Purest Person, Self-existence of Allah, the Word of Allah, the Attributes of Allah, His beautiful Names etc... Sufism involves all these matters.
Sufism did not emerge afterwards.
The Prophet (A.S.W.) taught this to the King of Sainthood “Hz. Ali” and to “Hz. Abu Baqr Sıddık.” He trained them. These two great men are the Doors of our Prophet. He also taught it to the skillful ones among his Companions.
Provided that there had been other paths from his other companions, they were either forgotten or ceased. Sufism is still continuing in Hz. Ali and Hz. Abu Baqr because Spiritual Knowledge does not end.
It is said that Sufism is not only a spiritual state but also “Keshf-Divine Revelation or intuition”. When the Spirit encounters the Prophet and Allah, he is taught divine Knowledge from Allah and His Prophet. The realities of faith and real faith-belief are taught to him. The certain Knowledge of faith is taught by God.
When the works of Abdulkadir-i Geylani, Hz. Rufai, Muhyiddin-i Arabi, Maktul Suhreverdi, Mawlana, Hadji Beqtash, Yunus, Sheikh Hasan-ı Shazili, Hz. Bedevi, Hz. Dusuki, Ahmed Yesevi, Muhammad Bahaeddin, Ahmed Faruk Serhindi and Hz. Ghazzali are read and studied, it is seen that Sufism exists particularly in the Prophets, in our Most High Prophet, Al-i Aba, in the Four Caliphs, the Twelve Ahla-l Bait Imams and in the great personalities such as Hasan al Basri, Junayd-ı Bagdadi, Maruf-u Karhi, Sırri Sakati... Hasan al Basri was one of the students of Hz. Ali. He imparted Spiritual Caliphate personally from him.
Sufism is the Divine Knowledge of Allah and Divine Love of Allah. It has two manifestations. He is encountered God either through Love or by Divine Knowledge depending on the talent of the student or adherent.
One of our Sufi Poets says:
“Do not think that your task is over with fasting and prayer,
The union for devotee is the Remembrance and Knowledge...”
Allah says: “Remember Me often.” Sufism means remembering Allah very often and numerously. Remembrance is Love and it causes Love.
“Ya eyyühellezine âmenüzkürüllahe zikren kesira - The Believers! Remember God abundantly!” (Al-Ahzab, 41)
“Vezkürullahe kesiren lealleküm tüflihün - Remember God always so that you may be saved!” (Al-Jumah, 10)
“Elâ bizikrillahi tetmeinnül kulûp - Surely, the remembrance of Allah comforts the hearts.” (Rad, 28)
So, how is the heart comforted? It is comforted with the Remembrance or Ziqr of Allah. What happened to the heart, which is not comforted? It is not in peace.
“Fezküruni ezkürküm - Remember Me (God) so that I will remember you!” (Al-Baqarah, 152)
It means: Remember Me, Call Me consciously and meaningfully. Our Prophet has already said: “The best remembrance (the most superior) is: La ilahe illallah - There is no God but Allah.”(33)
The Most High Allah says:
“Fezkur isme Rabbike - Remember the name of your Lord!” (34)
“O Muhammad, Praise Allah!” (35)
There is a command (Allah orders) to all the Prophets, to our Prophet and to Believers: “Praise Allah morning and evening.” (36)
“Vele Zikrullahi ekber - The foremost duty is to remember God.” (37)
Ritual Prayer-salat means praying, begging. There are also verses about worship, bowing down and prostration in the Koran. What does Allah say about them?
(33) From Jabir (R.A.), Thirmizi, “Riyazüs Salihin, Diy. İşl. Bşk. Public. 1976 Vol.3, p. 39
(34) Muzammil, 8
(35) Ahzab, 42
(36) “Ve tüsbbihûhü bükraten ve asîla.” (Fetih, 9)
(37) Ankebut, 45
“Ve akimüsselâte, innesselâte tenha ani’l fehşâi ve’l münker - Be steadfast in prayer, Perform your ritual prayer. Prayer fends away indecency, evil and adultery.” (38)
But what does He say at the end of this verse? “Vele zikrullâhi ekber - But your foremost duty is to remember Allah”. Remembrance of Allah is the greatest. The remembrance comforts the heart.
“Our Lord Allah says that Remembrance is the greatest duty by separating Remembrance from Ritual Prayer saying: “But remembrance is...”
Remembrance is related to faith. First, “Allah” will be recited then ritual prayer can be performed. Ritual prayer cannot be performed without remembering Allah.
“Allahu Ekber-Allah is the most great.” It means to exalt Allah.
“O Muhammad, Remember Me in the morning and in the evening!.” (39)
“Praise Me day and night!” (40)
(38) Ankebut: 45
(39) A’raf: 205
(40) Tâ-Hâ: 130
FAITH AND WORSHIP
Shortly, Tariqat-Sufism is the “faith and worship” side of Islam. But Shariat is related to the “Canonical Jurisprudence” of Islam.
Muslim Canonical Jurisprudence consists of:
- Criminal Law
- Transaction Law (today’s Civil Law)
The Criminal Law and Civil Law depend on:
- The Glorious Koran
- The Sunnat of the Prophet,
- Ijtihat (individual judgment in legal matters)
Both Shariat and Tariqat are Divine. They are celestial. They were established (corroborated) by Allah and His Apostle.
Although it was accepted like this during the Prophet and His Companion’s time, unfortunately, it was changed afterwards. Let’s see how it was changed, in what ways they changed it and what kind of varieties and classifications were made after our dear Prophet (S.A.W.) and His distinguished companions:
- First of all, religious sects of Jurisprudence/practice were constituted. This was not objected to as there was ijtihad in Islam and ijtihad (individual judgement, interpretation, innovation, expounding) was necessary.
Innovation would continue and it is still continuing (The works and efforts on Jurisprudence are still continuing.)
Yet, mujtahid (doctor of law, legal scholar, expounder) could also have made mistakes so none of the religious sects would be 100 percent correct because ijtihad was the personal interpretation of the expounder (who was not a prophet) whose proofs were put forward to as “they were in accordance with the Book and Sunnat”.
The expounder (mujtahid), who was not a heavenly messenger, would have been wrong and his proofs might not have been strong. However, this was hidden from the ordinary people or they might not have been informed about it.
In addition to this, the adherents of each religious sect accepted their own sect true (haq) and the others false (wrong). They did not have any sympathy for the other sects, which caused separations and groupings.
This was certainly due to the lack of knowledge of the people about ijtihad, mujtehid and religious sects.
There were such periods that religious sects were replaced by the religion.
However, there were not any religious sects in Islam but there were great scholars of Muslim Canonical Law and expounding.
- “Various sects pertaining belief” were constituted after the Companions and the real danger started at this point. We have already explained this subject thoroughly in our book called “Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending (Islâm’da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş)”. (41)
We should emphasize that since Scholastic Theology which is philosophy or a kind of philosophy based on the Logic of Aristotle, the metaphysical realities which were reported by Divine Messages were explained using partial intellect and in the frame of Aristotle Logic. Various religious sects of beliefs were formed as a result of it. The periods of umayyads and Abbasids passed with the discussions and arguments about religious sects pertaining to belief.
Divine Messages and Revelation were ignored and Rationalism took the place of Religion. I say “religion, because the essence of religion is belief-faith” but not Shariat. Shariat is the Canonical Law of Religion.
Let us see what happened... and here is an interesting side of it:
The Tariqat of Muhammad (the realities of faith and the worship side of Religion), which will lead to encounter Allah, was classified by the founders of belief and by the adherents as follows:
The worship that cannot be separated from faith was taken out from the Tariqat of Muhammad and was replaced in Shariat, that is to say, worship was moved to Jurisprudence that is the Religious Law.
Whereas, Shariat or Islamic Jurisprudence are the Criminal Law and the Civil Law, which are the branches of Religion.
Medrese’s situation; They added the spiritual Tariqat of Muhammad (S.A.W.) - the Spiritual Path of Hz. Muhammad which means “to worship Allah” (because you can be drawn near to Allah spiritually through worship) which is called “Tariqat-ı Muhammad”- to the Shariat of Muhammad. They taught this to our people in this way. They divided Tariqat but Tariqat involves all kinds of worship such as: first of all: remembrance, all kinds of ritual prayer, fasting etc... Spirit approaches Allah through worships. (42)
(41) See “Islam’da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş (Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending)” by Kâzım Yardımcı
(42) “I created mankind and jinn that they might worship Me.” (Dhariyat, 56)
They placed the realities of Faith of the Tariqat of Muhammad these realities are the Knowledge of Gnosis called Sufism-in Medrese leaving out Divine Revelations and replacing the beliefs which were set through reasoning using Aristotle Logic (by Mutazila and the People of Sunnat and the Scholastic Theologians such as Ashary and Maturidy)
By means of this, they changed Islamic beliefs based on Divine Revelations with the Knowledge of Scholastic Theology. They left Divine Revelation and become a rationalist.
They preferred their scholastic, rationalist theologians who depend on reasoning and Philosophy to the Twelve Imams: (43), Hasan al Basri (44), Jafer al Sadıq and those who are the great scholars and Gnostic of the Tariqat of Muhammad and those who follow their paths such as: Junayd al Baghdad(45), Sırri Sakati (46), Maruf-u Kerhi (47), Beyazid-i Bistami (48), Abdul Qadir Gilani (49), Sayyid Ahmed ar Rufai (50), Sayyid Ahmed al Bedevi (51), Sayyid Ibrahim al Dusuki (52), Sayyid Muiniddin-i Cheshdi (53), Sheikh Hasan-ı Shazili (54), Abdulhalik-i Gücdüvanı (55), Sayyid Ahmed Yesevi (56), Muhammad Baba Sammasi (57), Hadji Bektash-i Veli (58), Muhammad Bahaeddin (59), Ahmed Faruk-u Serhindi (60), Jalaladdin-i Rumi, Sheikh Cemal-i Halveti and many other great personalities of Sufism, who are experts both in the canonical Law of Islam and the Wise Scholars and Gnostics.
(43) Imam Aliyyel (Murtaza (A.S.): He was the only person who was born in the Kaaba. (598-661) His sacred tomb is in Najaf ul Eshref (Iraq).
* Imam Hasan ül Mücteba (A.S.) He was born in Madina. (625-669) His sacred tomb is in Madina in Cennetül Baki. (the Eternal Paradise)
* Imam Husayn-ı Shah-ı Shüheda (A.S.): He was born in Madina. (626-680) His sacred tomb is next to Imam Hasan’s.
* Imam Zaynal Abidin (A.S.): He was born in Madina. (656-713) His sacred tomb is next to Imam Hasan’s.
* Imam Muhammad Baqır (A.S.): He was born in Madina. (680-735) His sacred tomb is next to Imam Zaynal Abidin’s in Madina.
* Imam Jafar al Sadıq (A.S.): He was born in Madina. (704-765) His sacred tomb is next to his father’s and his ancestors in Medina. He is one of the Twelve Imams who lived the longest.
* Imam Musa-ı Kâzım (A.S.): He was born in a place between Mecca and Medina which is called “Ebva”. (745-779) His sacred tomb is in Baghdad, in a place called as “Kuraysh Makberesi-The Tomb of Quraysh” at first, then it was called as “Kâzımeyn”.
* Imam Ali Rıza (A.S.): He was born in Madina. (765-818) His sacred tomb is in Mashad next to the Tomb of Harun Rashid. (The city of Tus)
* Imam Muhammad Taki-Cevad (A.S.): He was born in Medina. (811-835) His sacred tomb is at Kâzımeyn in Baghdad.
* Imam Ali Naki-Hadi (A.S.): He was born in the village of Surya built by Musa-ı Kâzım near Medina. (830-870) His sacred Tomb is in Samerra (Iraq).
* Imam Hasan al Askari (A.S.): He was born in Medina. (853-880) His sacred tomb is next to the tomb of Imam Ali Naki.
* Imam Muhammad Mahdi (A.S.): He was born in Samerra in Iraq. (870-878) He disappeared in Samerra.
(44) Imam Hasan al Basri: He was the greatest student and heir of Imam Ali, who is the king of Sanctity. (Madina) (642-728)
(45)Junayd al Baghdad: He is known with the title “Seyyidüttaife-the Head of Sufis.” Died in Baghdad (910)
(46) Sırri Saqati: He was the uncle of Junayd al Baghdadi. He is a strong Gnostic in the Knowledge of Unity. Died in 865, his sacred tomb is in Baghdad.
(47) Maruf-u Karhi: He died in Baghdad in 815. He was the adherent of Davud-u Tai and the Master of Sırri Saqati. His sacred tomb is near River Tigris.
(48) Beyazid-i Bistami: A famous Sufi from Khorasan. He was one of the first Malamis. His real name is “Tayfur” (died in 874)
(49) Sayyid Abdulqadir Gilani: He bears the title “Gawsul Azam”. (1077-1165) He was born in Gilan in Baghdad. His sacred tomb is in Baghdad.
(50) Sayyid Ahmed al Rufai: He is one of the four Gawsullahs. (1118-19, 1182-83) He is known as “Sultan-ül Arifin-the Sultan of the Wise”. He is a contemporary of Gaws-ı Gilâni. He is from Arzul Betayih and was born in “Ümmü-Übeyde”. His sacred tomb is in Vasit.
(51) Sayyid Ahmed al Bedevi: He is one of the four Gawsullahs. He was born in Morocco in 1179. His sacred tomb is in Tanta (Egypt)
(52) Sayyid Ibrahim-i Dusuki: He is one of the Four Great Gawsullahs. (1238-1277-1299) He was born at Dusuk in Egypt. His sacred tomb is in Dusuk.
(53) Muiniddin-i Chesdi: (Munieddin Hasan) He died in 1235 in İcmir, India. He was the person who started the new way of the Indian Chesdish from Abdullah Ansari.
(54) Sheikh Hasan-ı Shazili: He was the founder of the Shazili Tariqat. (1196-Septe-1260 Egypt)
(55) Abdul Halik-i Gücdüvani: (died in 1179 or 89) He is the son of Abdulcelil or Cemil from Malatya. He went to Bukhara and became an aspirant of Yusuf al Hamadani. He collected all the principles of Naqshibendi Tariqat.
(56) Ahmet Yesevi: He was the founder of the Yesevi Tariqat. He was born in the city of “Yesi” near Bukhara. He died in 1166.
(57) Muhammed Baba Sammasi: He became the spiritual father of Muhammad Bahaaddin Naqsibandi when he was only three years old. He assigned Sayyid Amir Kulal to the spiritual training of the child.
(58) Hadji Baqtashi Veli: A Turkish Sufi (Khorasan 1210-Hadjibeqtash 1271) He is one of the successors of Baba Ishak who revolted against the Seljuks. He is one of the descendants of the 7th Imam Musa-i Kazim.
(59) Muhammad Bahaeddin (Naqshibendi): He is the first sheikh of the Naqsibandi Tariqat. He is a famous Turkish Sufi (Kasr-ı Arifan 1318- Bukhara 1389). He is the spiritual son of Muhammad Baba Sammasi.
(60) Ahmed Faruk Serhendi: He is the founder of Müceddiye- Innovation branch of Naqshis. (1563-1626)
The great personalities mentioned above are the respectable teachers of the metaphysical realities, belief and faith of Islam. They never accept a belief not based on Divine Revelation. (The Book and Sunnat) They refuse the methods and beliefs of Philosophical Scholastic Theology. Sufis and Ghazzali did not accept the religious sects of belief formed through Aristotle Logic. Belief was corroborated by Allah and His Apostle; and it was conveyed by the Koran and Sunnat. The methods of Religion and Faith cannot be established by Partial Intellect and using Reason. If so, it is not heavenly then, it becomes logical and it is based on the Intellect, but heavenly Messengers are unlettered (illiterate). Their knowledge is from Allah and Heaven but not from their own mind.
The Prophets have not written the Books using their minds. The Prophet (The Perfect Man -Insan-ı Kâmil-) learns the knowledge directly from Allah without an intermediary. These four Books were not written by their own mind or by studying. This is what the Divine Revelation is.
Religion has two main fields:
- Faith (Belief)
- Worship (The path of Allah-the good works (pious deeds) which lead to Allah. It means to communicate with the Spirit of the Exalted Prophet through love and spiritual bond (61) such as Ziqr-Remembrance (62), contemplation (63), praise (64), prayer (65), fasting (66), pilgrimage (67), almsgiving (68), charity (69) and gratitude (70) and so on...
(61) See Al-i Imran, 200
(62) See Ahzab-41 and other glorious verses
(63) See Al-i Imran, 191 and other glorious verses
(64) See Al-i Imran, 41 and other glorious verses
(65) See Baqarah, 3 and other glorious verses
(66) See Baqarah, 183 and other glorious verses
(67) See Baqarah, 196 and other glorious verses
(68) See Al-Tawba, 60 and other glorious verses
(69) See Al-i Imran, 17 and other glorious verses
(70) See Naml 40, and other glorious verses
All these mentioned above belong to the worship part of Islâm. If we tell the truth, all of them were included into Madrasa.
They exempted Sufism of the Tariqat of Muhammad, which means the explanation of the Realities of Belief according to Divine Messages and Revelation called “Gnosis-Wisdom”, by the support of the government in power and with the help of the kings, emperors, sultans and shahs or false caliphs (71), who were in cooperation with sovereign powers through influencing their pashas and governors. They accepted rationalist, scholastic and philosophical beliefs instead of it, so they accepted Shariat as the main basis in place of Tariqat of the Spirit of Muhammad (S.A.W), which is the spiritual path of Muhammad.
“And then We have set you on Shariat.” (Jasiyah, 18)
Shariat is the Canonical Jurisprudence of Islam. It means laying down or setting forth the religious law. It is concerned with the worldly affairs. It is the Jurisprudence of Islam or Islamic Canonical Law, which organizes public relations and arranges the laws about economy, trade, obligations official marriage, divorce, criminal and public laws together with the systems of administration, lawsuit and execution. It also involves the matters permitted or forbidden by religion.
Shariat was set up through the Glorious Koran, Sunnat and ijtihad. Its rules and commands are Divine and directly from God. It is a Divine System and is not set up by ordinary people. The upholder of Laws are Allah, who is the Lord of the Universe and his exalted Prophet.
Ijtihads are included in Sunnat because expounding is permitted by the Prophet of Islam. Ijtihad improves the Laws of Religion and prevents conservatism.
As it is explained above, they exempted the Spiritual Path of Allah, who is the Most Great, and His Prophet and also the paths and methods of great Personalities (mentioned above) who explain this spiritual path and the Knowledge of Wisdom by denying all of them and showing Shariat as the complete Religion of Allah-of Islam. They showed the Religion as if only consisting of Shariat.
(71) Our dear Prophet said: “The Caliphate will last thirty years after me and then sovereignty, kingdom, monarchy will start and a rapacious king will come to rule you.”
From Said b. Cümhan: Ebu Davud, Thirmizi, Nesei, Tac Translation vol.3, p.79.
Fortunately, Allah had chosen Ghazzali, who was a great scholar among them, a distinguished Philosopher and a Scholar of the Scholastic Theology and Juridical Sciences in Islam of his time. He showed him against them by involving him into the Tekke of Sufi experts.
He made him a great defender of Sufism-the spiritual path of Hz. Muhammad (A.S.)
Thank God that Ashary (72) said: “The Sanctity of Muhammad is still alive and the Spirit which is the decree of Allah does not die.” (73) Otherwise, They would have denied the Spirit of Allah completely and become 100 percent materialists. They are still having suspicions about this matter. Ashary also said that “the miracles of Saints and miraculous influence and their support is Haq (true)”. May Allah be pleased with Hasan al Ashary! He had done well stating these facts, or else Madrasa would have made the Muslims completely materialist by closing the Path of Spirituality same as the most scholars of Madrasa became a kind of materialist as they tried to show the Spirit a physical being which means materialism.
Nevertheless, our people never gave up believing their saints who were the great people of Sufism because they lived away from nonsense philosophical and theological doctrines and remained with their “Pure Faith”. Their belief and loyalty towards saints protected them from being astray in their belief.
Ghazzali also supported people and chose the Spiritual-divine belief and faith saying that the realities of Faith could only be known by the Wise People of Sufism. (74) “He denied the beliefs which depended on Scholastic Theology” based on Aristotle Logic Madrasa invented.
In addition, Ghazzali followed the path of God of Sufis. (75)
(72) Ashary (Abu’l Hasan Ali b. Ishmael): He was a well- known scholastic Theologian and the founder of the Sect of “Eş’arilik”. (Basra 813-Baghdad, 736)
(73) See the works of Ashary: (Makdetul Islamiyyin, El İbane Usul ud diyane and others).
(74) Al Munqidh min ad Dalal (Deliverer from Error) by Ghazzali, Cağaloğlu Publ. Ist. 1970
(75) The History of Sects “Mezhepler Tarihi” by Muhammad Ebu Zehra, Chapter about Ghazzali, p.210-212.
Shortly, Islam, the Religion of Allah, which is set up with the Koran and Sunnat of the Prophet, consists of the Tariqat of Muhammediye and the Shariat of Muhammediye. (Ahmediye) (76)
The Tariqat of Muhammad is: (77) firstly based on Faith and then on the Book and Sunnat
- Firstly, the Remembrance of Allah (to remember Allah very often, abundantly)
- The Contemplation of Allah (to contemplate Allah, divine thought)
- All kinds of worship and good works that draw the servant near to his Lord such as: ritual prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving etc...
- One’s improving himself through fighting against his self-carnal desires (nafs).
This is what the main purpose of Allah is, because Tariqat is concerned with “eternal life” and it is pertaining to “the next world”.
The Shariat of Ahmediye is:
All kinds of Law and the State System of Islam, which is based on the Book, the Sunnat and ijtihad. It is also called as “Ukubat”. Criminal Law and Public Law. All kinds of Law concerning people such as Family Laws, official marriage, divorce, commercial Law, the Economy of Islam and constitutional Law are included in Public Law.
These are the subjects of our religion about worldly affairs. They are concerned with the life on this world and transitory. Shariat is related with worldly affairs and transient because the next world (metaphysical world) is spiritual. There is no Shariat there. Shariat is for the life of this world.
The Tariqat of Muhammad (Sufism) (79) and the Shariat of Ahmediye (Islam Canonical Law) are confirmed with the Koran, Sunnat, Ijtihad and with the Agreement of Community. Both of them are true and they are based on the Koran and Sunnat.
(76) a- “Sümme caalnake ala ŞERİAT’ın-and We have set you on Shariat.” (Al-Jasiye, 18)
(77) b- “Yehdi ile’l hakkı ve ila TARİK’ın müstakim-We have directed to the Straight Path with spiritual guidance.” (Al-Ahqaf, 30)
These two Koran verses are the clear evidence of the truth of Tariqat and Shariat by the Koran.
(78) For detailed information, see İnsanda Yükselme (Ascension in Man) by Kazım YARDIMCI
(79) Sufism did not emerge from “madrasa”. It arose in “tekke”. All the Sufis belong to either a religious teacher of a Tariqat or he is a religious teacher himself.
According to the Koran, those who deny them are in error. Shariat and Tariqat are the Commands of Allah, His Apostle and the Koran. This is known by those who recite the Koran.
The people who obey them are the righteous and they deserve respect.
In fact, all kinds of worship are the commands of Tariqat, but not the orders of Shariat.
Shariat is consisted of Islamic Canonical Law because worship is between Allah and His servant. All kinds of worship that lead the Spirit to the union of Allah such as: recitation, contemplation, spiritual connection, ritual prayer, fasting etc. belong to Tariqat.
Tariqat means the Path of ALLAH. “Tarik” means path, way, manner and that is faith and worship.
“Yehdi ile’l hakki ve ila Tarikin müstakim-We directed to the Straight Path with Spiritual Guidance.” (Al-Ahkaf, 30)
“Then, We have set you on Shariat.” (Jasiye, 18)
“I created the genies and mankind to worship Me.” (Al-Dhariyat, 56)
SOME VERSES FROM THE KORAN ABOUT THOSE WHO BELIEVE OTHERS (IDOLS) AS GUARDIANS (Walis) BESIDES ALLAH:
Al-Baqarah: 107, 257 Al-Imran: 28 Al-A’nam: 51, 70 Al- Tawbah: 116 Al Sajda: 4 Al-Shura: 8, 9, 31, 44 Al-Nisa: 76, 139, 144 Al-Maidah: 51, 57 Al-Tawbah: 23 Hud: 20,113 Al-Rad: 16, Al-Isra: 97 Al-Kahf: 102 Al-Furqan: 18 Al-Ankabut:141 Al-Zumar: 3 Al-Shura: 6, 9, 46 Jasiye: 10 Al-Kahf: 44, Al Anfal: 40 Al-Hajj: 13 Al-Duhan: 41 Al-Imrans: 150 Al-Yunus: 30
In the Koran, the expression “Min dunihi-besides Allah” means the idols that the pagans worship as “god” are the “stone idols and statues”. All the scholars of Islam agree with this. None of the Muslims have accepted the Prophets and Saints as gods besides Him (Allah). Using the expression “Mindunihi-besides Allah” is intended for stony statues or idols but not for the Prophets, Messengers or Saints.
The enemies of the Prophet and Saints cause confusion of concepts by changing this verse. Every Muslim knows Allah one. They love, respect, serve and treat the Prophets, Saints and the Perfect Men kindly as they are the Messengers, the Friends or the Guardians of Allah because they are the great teachers, masters, scholars and the Wise people who teach God. They are the exalted instructors who are near Allah and who have a relation with Allah the Most High. But, the idols have no relation with Allah because there is no other God but Allah.
“Vessâbikunessabikun ülaike’l mukerrebun - Those who are the religious leaders are the righteous who are near to Allah.” (80) (Vaqıa: 10-11)
They are scholar, wise Messengers and Guardians. They are close to Allah and they have a relation with Allah.
The righteous must be loved, respected and honored. Prostration before Adam and the Koran refers to this. It does not mean to worship them. The verses of the Prophets, Saints of Allah and the righteous are all confirmed by the Koran.
“Vealleme Âdemel esmâe külleha - I taught Adam all My names.” (Al-Baqarah, 31)
Then, Adam is more scholar than the Angels. He knows all the Knowledge and Knowledge is the attribute of Allah. The scholar man who bears this divine attribute should be prostrated. Knowledge gives superiority. The superior person should be respected and exalted. Those who do not show respect to the scholar or who do not love him, do not love and respect Allah. The prostration before the Knowledge and Spirit is the prostration before the attribute of Allah. Prostration before the Attribute is accepted as the prostration before the Person of Allah.
Those who do not prostrate before Adam should think about the divine essence, the divine spirit in Adam (Man). Adam has the ability to learn all the names. Who can know all the names-everything? To know all the names means to know all things.
The Angels do not know all the names. They were unfair in their dispute. The superiority of Adam has been proved them in the presence of the Lord. They did not continue their dispute then and prostrated before Him by accepting Adam more scholar than they were. (81) Only Satan has not prostrated before Him.
(80) Sâbık (The righteous): The closest person to Allah, the respectable person, whose spirit reached the highest level in perfection.
(81) See the Koran, Al-Baqarah: 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
Respect and prostration was for the Pure Spirit, the Word of Allah (82) that exists in Adam, which has the ability to learn this knowledge. It was not before his body. If they had prostrated before his body, then, the Angels would have been a polytheist! No, no, no. It was before the wise, scholar Spirit, Decree, which was the Word, the Decree or the Holy Breath of Allah. The Knowledge or the decree of Allah is not a creature of Allah but it is an attribute of Allah, who is the Most High.
“Ela lehü’l halku ve’l emr - Surely both the creation and the spirit belong to Allah (His is the Creation, His is the Command)”. (Araf, 54)
This verse shows that the Creation and Command are different. The Koran is also the Command of Allah, so it is not created.
“Kulir ruhi min emri rabbi-Say: the Spirit is from my Lord’s Command.” (Al-Isra, 85)
The Koran and the Spirit are the Commands of the Lord. The command of the Lord is the Divine Word, the Divine Breath of Him.
The Word or the Command of Allah is the attribute of Allah.
The prostration before the Attribute of Allah the Most High is regarded as the prostration before His Person.
Attribute is not an entity so that the prostration is not before a second being. Attribute is the Divine Light that exists with the Person of Allah. The Person of Allah is Divine Light (Nur). Divine Light is only One, and that is the Absolute Existence Lord Allah.
The Prophets and the saints (walis) bear Divine Spirits. For this reason he who does not prostrate before the Koran and the Divine Spirit (Adam), the Command of Allah, the attribution of Allah, does not prostrate before Allah and God Forbid! He falls into the state of Satan.
(82) “I breathed- (directed) to Adam (human-man) from My Spirit.” (Sad: 72)
THE MYSTERY OF “HUU” IN BREATHING
Now, with the permission of Allah we will explain the mystery in the words “İlah” and “Allah” in order to clarify this subject thoroughly. The main letter in the words “Allah” and “İlah” is “H”. We make, the sounds “Hı-He-Hu” while breathing in and breathing out. This is called “sır-hidden sanctuary, innermost part of the heart or mystery” in Sufism, and they say: “count your breath and be conscious about your breath”. This is the most exalted and natural ziqr-recitation-remembrance. Man recites Allah with the name of “Hu” while sleeping or being awake for 24 hours. This is the constant, continuous Recitation and prayer. Naturally, one should have recited the names of Allah with his heart, with his Spirit, with his mystery and with his subtleties to reach this exalted Recitation of Allah or else he cannot succeed it.
If he is not in conscious of it, he becomes unaware of it, then he is called “the heedless of recitation”. The recitation of the heedless is invalid in the presence of Allah. That is a natural recitation. The wind blows with the sound of “Hu”, water and motors always make the sound “Hu” while working. The whole nature chants “Hu”. They whirl reciting “Hu”. They move by whirling because of their love. This is “He-Hu” in the words of “Allah-İlah”.
“Hu” means “He” which expresses “identity-entity-existence”. The real existence is Allah. The other creations are consisted of His Divine Light through the condensation of energy- Divine Light. The world of plurality, geometric shapes come into being in this way, same as the sea and foam which exists afterwards. Just as the foam has no real existence, they are present with sea. The creation also exists with Allah. They do not have an entity in reality. The real entity is the presence of Allah. The existence of other beings is temporary and nominal in reality. The real entity is the presence of Allah and the existence of other beings is nominal and temporary. And the Divine Existence is Divine Light and it has no sides or edges. For this reason, it is the Unique One, the sole and the Absolute One. The other ones (1’s) are the similar and equivalent of each other and there are also other ones (1’s). For example: There are 10 times 1 in number 10. Each-1- is not absolute 1. The absolute One is the one that exists absolutely because two infinite (edgeless, limitless) beings cannot be possible. The only God is Allah and He is Hu. He is the Absolute Existence and the Absolute One.
As He-Hu in the word “Allah” expresses identity, presence, entity, existence and personality, none of the other beings have a real identity, presence, existence, entity or personality except Allah, the Most High. Therefore, Allah the Most High imparted His attributions to His servants and to His Creation. All the things-the Creation is the manifestation of His beautiful names. Nevertheless, He does not impart His Attribution of Divinity (the quality of deity). This is not possible. In reality, the existence is the God who exists spontaneously. A second being besides Allah is not possible and cannot be taken into consideration. The real Entity is one. He who owns an entity (presence) has the Attribution of Deity. The identity of the existence of other things except Allah is nominal and temporary. Allah exists Himself. His existence is from Himself. The quality of Deity does not exist in whom that does not have an entity, an identity or presence. There is no god except Allah. The god is Allah. Lâ ilâhe illa huu....
The eternal-constant being is Divine Light and infinite. Two infinite-everlasting beings are not possible. Just as the existence of Allah-the real being is compulsory, His absolute Oneness is also compulsory. Adam (Man)-Spirits and Angels, every being is Hu-He in reality. This is only in reality but not in identity. The identity-divinity of Allah is exempted from the Creation because He is the eternal, everlasting, omnipresent Existence. The other beings are nominal, temporary beings that manifest with the Existence of Allah same as the temporary foam on the sea. It must be remembered that the origin of foam is also sea. The foam has no real presence. Allah is the existence of all the existed beings. He is the Being of the beings, the essence of beings and our essence. He-Hu is One. The unity of Allah is compulsory same as His existence. Allah does not impart His person to anybody and it cannot be imparted. His person is one and He cannot be divided and He has no sides. But, He imparts His other attributions of His names to the Creation and Adam. “Ve alleme Âdemel Esmae külleha - I taught Adam all My names.” (Baqarah, 31) Adam is the mirror of Allah’s Person and manifestation of His names-His attributions.
Adam (Insan-ı Kâmil), the Perfect Man is not a god but he bears divine qualities. “Qualify yourself with the qualities of Allah”. (A sacred saying from the Prophet) “Sıbğatellah- God’s own dye”. The most beautiful dye is the dye of Allah. It means the manners, the attributions of Allah. The dye of Allah is the most beautiful. (Al-Baqarah, 138)
THE PROSTRATION BEFORE ADAM (THE PERFECT MAN)
“Joseph said to his father: Father, I dreamt of eleven stars and the sun and the moon. I saw them prostrate themselves before me.” (Joseph, 4)
“Verefea ebeveyhi ale’l arşi ve harru lehu söcceden-He helped his parents to a throne. (He exalted them) All fell on their knees and prostrated themselves before him (Joseph). Joseph said to his father: Father this is the meaning of my old vision, my Lord has fulfilled it.” (Joseph, 100)
Some interpreters say that the Angels have prostrated before Adam because Adam was more superior than the Angels. It is said that human beings had not prostrated before Human, but according to the 100th verse of the Chapter Joseph, human beings prostrated before human (MAN). The person before whom is prostrated is not an ordinary man, but he is an exalted Prophet, a saint who bears the heart which Allah is in, and the spirit which is Scholar, Gnostic and Divine.
“When your Lord said to Angels: ‘I am placing on the earth one that shall rule as My Deputy’ they replied:
“Will you put there one that will do evil and shed blood, when we have for so long sung Your praises and sanctified Your name?”
He said: “I know what you know not.”
He taught Adam the names of all things and then set them before the Angels saying: ‘Tell me the names of those if what you say be true!’ Glory to You, they replied, We have no knowledge except that which You have given as. You alone are all-knowing and Wise.
Then said He: “Adam, tell them their names” and when Adam had named them, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of Heaven and Earth and all that you hide and all that you reveal” And, when we said to the Angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam’, they all prostrated themselves.” (Al-Baqarah 30, 31, 32, 33, 34)
Our Prophet did not approve of the way of respecting of materialists. Yet, He would accept the honoring towards his spiritual personality in order to make it a blessing for those who show respect. He wanted the prostration to be with heart. It is written in the books about Islam History that He would greet others reverencing with his holy body. Our last word about this subject is the following Koran Verse: “The unbelievers do not prostrate, they walk proudly on the Earth.” (Al-Isra, 37) Allah knows the best of all.
There are not any spirits in graveyards, then, why did the Prophet stand by the graves and recited the Koran? And why did he encourage visiting graveyards? We can explain the reasons and the benefits of it as follows:
- The grave is the symbol of one’s rank in the next world.
- It is for remembering him.
- Reciting him or them “Fatiha” (the opening Chapter of the Koran)
- If the person who visits is a Prophet or a Saint, if visitor is a Prophet or saint, it becomes a blessing and intercession for the persons who are visited.
- If the person who is visited is a Prophet, a believer or a pious person who is close to Allah, the believer goes to his grave, which is his memorial, his house as if he is alive. The visitor expects his prayer from his Divine Spirit, which is alive in the Heavens. The spirits of pious Prophets, Saints, eminently truthful people, the Spirits of Martyrs and righteous servants are alive. They are in the presence of Allah and their prayers are worth answering and are accepted by Allah.
The books about Canonical Jurisprudence contain subjects about the religious suitability and manners of visiting graveyards. Concerning about this sentence, there is a hadith in “Dürrü Muhtar”: “There is no objection to visiting graveyards even it is for women because once I had forbidden to visit graveyards but now I give you permission to visit them.” (83) In Imdaa, Müjteba, Bahir and Redd-i Muhtar, it is written: “It is a good and pious act to visit them as it is commanded and advised in the hadith. In Redd-i Muhtar: “They can be visited every week. The most virtuous days are Friday, Saturday, Sunday, Monday and Thursday.” In Fethu’l Kadir: “Praying while standing is in accordance with Sunnat”. Thus, the Prophet (S.A.W.) would do in that way when there was a misfortune and he would also say: “Greetings to the people of the land of believers, we hope to join you if God wills.” (84) In Shehr-i Lübeb: As a manner of visiting, the visitor comes to the grave from the foot of it but not from the head of it, if possible. It is also confirmed that the Prophet (S.A.W.) would recite the beginning part of Sura of Baqhara at the head of a grave and the last part of it at the foot of it. Another real manner of it is to salute saying: “Esselamü Aleyküm” but not “Aleykümüsselam”.
He would then pray while standing up and if he sat down, he would sit down near or far to the grave according to his relation in his life and read the easy parts of the Koran. As for this, he would recite “Fatiha, the beginning part of Sura of Al-Baqhara, Ayetül’-Kürsi, Âmenerresulü, Yasin, Mülk, Tekasür and Sura of Ihlas twelve, eleven, seven or three times and say: “My God, do accept the merits (divine blessings) of what we have recited for the person who died. There is wide information about presenting merits to dead person by reciting the Koran and other pious deeds in “İbnü Abidin”.
Summary: In the Chapter about “Hac Ani’l Gayr-going on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the name of another person” our Scholars have clearly said that one could bestow the benefits of ritual prayer, fasting, almsgiving and other good deeds on other people. (Hidayet) It is even written in the Chapter about Almsgiving in “Tatarhaniye”, taken from Muhit that the most virtuous act for the person who gives alms is to intend for all the believer women and men because this reaches them and his own merits are not reduced by it. In “Bahir”: “It is also proper to bestow the merits of one’s prayer, fasting, almsgiving for others and the merits find them according to the People of Sunnat and the Community of Muslims.” (Bedayi) İbnû Teymiyye wanted to forbid giving the merits of recitation as a present to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) because he claimed that one can dare to his exalted dignity with only his permission and this is to pronounce the formula calling God’s benediction on the Prophet and to desire for an opportunity for this. Subki and some others refused this stating that a special permission was not necessary in these matters by showing examples from Ibn-ü Ömer and others.
(83) It is said that the word “land” is an extra word in the sentence or you have to say it, for, when you greet the land, you are considered to have greeted the people there. From Ibnu Abidin
(84) Muslim, Cenaiz,102; Abu Davud, Cenaiz, 79; Nesai, Taharet, 109, Cenaiz, 103; Ibn Mace, Cenaiz, 36; Muvatta, Taharet, 28; Ahmed b. Hanbel, IV, 221
Hz. Ebu Hanife told his student Ebu Yusuf in “Vasiyetnâme-the Written Will”: “When you observe in your Sultan (Religious Teacher) something which is not in accordance with Knowledge, remember him with your obedience to him because his hand is more powerful than yours. You can say to him: ‘I am obedient to you in the matters on which you have authority and dominion, but I would like to request something about your manners which is contrary to the Knowledge. It is enough if you do it once near your Sultan. If you insist on and continue it; they may depress you and it may cause the destruction of your religion. If he does the same thing again in order to understand your ambition in commanding good works and your seriousness in religion, you can again go near him alone and give advice to him about religion. If he is a follower of a sect that has gone astray, argue with him even if he is a Sultan. Tell him what you know about the Book of Allah and the Sunnat of the Prophet. If he accepts his fault, that is better, but if not, pray God to protect you from him and remember death. Wish forgiveness for your Master and for the people from whom you imparted Knowledge. Continue reciting the Koran and visit the graveyards saints and holy places very often!”
Every Muslim knows there is nothing in the graveyards except the lying dead bodies without spirits. And none of the Muslims, who says Allah is One, worship them as a god. The respect is for Allah. The love and respect for the Prophet Saints, martyrs and believers are same as the respect and love of the student towards their teacher or the love of the son towards his father.
That is to say, every Prophet and Saint posses the complete Knowledge and Wisdom of Allah. To love and to respect the Scholars, the Wise and the Gnostics is the command of Islam.
“Show your love and affection to those who are close to Allah. The noblest of you in God’s sight is he who is the most righteous.” (Al-Hajurat, 13)
Piety is possible with fear and awe. The fear and awe are possible with the Knowledge.
“Innema yahşellahe min ibadihi’l ülema-Only those who are scholars - who have the Knowledge of Allah-fear Allah (God).” (Fatir, 28)
A wise saint and apostle is the scholar of Allah. The scholar is the teacher. Those who do not love and respect their teachers, have no love and respect for Allah.
It is said that people are kissing hands or gravestones. In our religion, there is no evidence of not kissing the hands of teachers, fathers or not showing them respect. On the contrary, they are encouraged to do so.
The respect for the great person is for Allah and Allah is the greatest.
“Refiüdderecat - The highest of degrees (ranks)”. (Mü’min, 15)
The most scholar of Muslims after the Prophets is Hz. Aliyyel Mürteza who is the King of Sanctity-Shah-ı Velayat and the Door of Wisdom. For this reason, he is called as “Keremallahu vechehu-Allah honored his face.”
“İnne ekremeküm indallahi etkaküm - The noblest of you in God’s sight is he who is pious.” (Al-Hajurat, 13)
Piety is acquired with Knowledge because:
“Only those who are Scholars fear Allah (afraid of Allah).” (Fatir, 28)
Hz. Ali is the head and leader of all the Wise and Scholars. For this reason, the leader (Imam) of all the pious is Hz. Imam-ı Ali who is the King of Sanctity.
Our Most High Lord has accepted the degrees (ranks) according to the Verse Mü’min 15: “Refiüdderecat - The highest of all degrees” and said: “He is the Most Exalted of all.”
When a lover kisses a grave, he is as if kissing the dead person’s hand same as he kisses his parents’ or teacher’s hands. He shows his respect by this as well as his love. Kissing is a sign of love and respect; it is not worship.
Everybody loves his master, his teacher and he kisses his hands sincerely because of his love.
Protecting and praising the graves of the Prophets and their heirs Walis, who are the great defenders, the symbols of the Oneness of Allah is in order to protect and exalt the reality of Unity of Allah.
If the defenders and leaders of Religion of Unity, who are the Scholars and Wise People of Islam are forgotten, Islam will be forgotten.
Protecting and exalting the memories and memorials of these personalities are in the name of Oneness-Unity of Allah and for Islam, which is the Religion of Unity.
Those that do not love and respect them do not love and respect Allah-the Lord because they are the teachers who inform us about our Lord Allah and His Oneness and they teach and defend this idea. Exalting the Perfect Men, the Mature people, the real monotheists (people who defend and live the oneness of Allah) who are the Wise and even the source of Wisdom means exalting Allah and Unity as they are the great Monotheists , the witnesses of God (Shahid) and the soldiers of God (Mujahid) who are the leaders of Unity.
“Hakka bina; La ilahe illalah’est Hüseyn-Huseyin is the mausoleum of the One God-La ilâhe illallah.” (Mashad-ı Husayn A.S.)
Mashad-ı Imam Husayn is the reflection of Hazrat Husayn who is the King of Martyrs and the Mausoleum of Unity. (85)
The Intercession of Our Prophet and the other Prophets with their Prayers.
-- “Say: If you love Allah, obey me (Swear fealty to me) (86) Then, God will love you and forgive your sins. God is Forgiving and Merciful.” (The Imrans, 31)
-- “Our People! Obey the call of God’s summoner and believe in Him so that Allah will forgive some of your sins and protect (deliver) you from a woeful scourge.” (Al-Ahqaf- 31)
-- “Lord! said Moses, Forgive me and my brother. Admit us to Your Mercy, of all those that show mercy, You are the most Merciful.” (A’raf, 151)
-- “Moses chose from among his people seventy men for Our appointment (in order to take them for repentance). When the earth shook beneath their feet (because they asked him to take them to Allah) said: ‘Had it been Your will Lord, You could have destroyed them long ago and myself too. But would You destroy us because of what the fools among us did? You alone are our Guardian. Forgive us and have mercy on us! You are the noblest of those who forgive’.” (Al-A’raf, 155)
-- “Abraham said: ‘Forgive my father too’ ” (Al-Shuara, 86)
-- “Noah said: ‘Lord, forgive me, forgive my parents and every true believer who seek refuge in my house. Forgive all the faithful, men or women and hasten the destruction of the wrongdoers.’ ” (Noah, 28)
(85) The above Persian line belongs to Hz. Sayyid Muiniddini Cheshdi (r.a, k.s) who was a great Wali, a scholar and a Gnostic. He was the religious teacher of the Cheshdi Tariqat.
(86) It means to love Me because, one does not obey (swear fealty) to whom he does not love.
-- “If when they wronged themselves, they had come to you imploring God’s pardon and if the Apostle had sought of God’s forgiveness for them, they would have found God forgiving and Merciful.” (Al-Nisa: 64) (87)
-- “Peace be with you! said Abraham. ‘I shall implore my Lord to forgive you, for, to me He has been gracious’.” (Maryam, 47)
-- “When it is said to them: ‘Come, God’s apostle will beg forgiveness for you’, they turn their heads and you see them go away in scorn.” (Munafiqun, 5) (88)
-- “As for those that taunt the believers who give freely and scoff at those who give according to their means, God will scoff at them. A woeful punishment awaits them. It is the same whether or not you beg forgiveness for them, for they have denied God and His Apostle. God does not guide the evil-doers.” (Al Tawbah, 79-80)
Therefore, the intercession of the Prophet is for only the believers who swear fealty and who seek forgiveness from Him.
-- “They will say to you: ‘Implore God to pardon us’.” (Al-Fath, 11),
(87) They say that you cannot implore help from anyone except Allah! However, according to this verse, ‘If they had come to you imploring God’s pardon...” It means if they wanted the Prophet to be an intermediary for their forgiveness, if the Prophet had wanted them to be forgiven, Allah would have been very merciful and forgiven them (but they did not deign to accept it and go to the Prophet for his prayer, they were proud).
(88) Obviously, this is certain evidence, the most clear verse which explains the intercession of the Prophet that he can ask Allah for the forgiveness of the other people. This is an intercession, but, those who are proud do not accept the divine intermediary (intercession) of the Prophet and they also deny the intercession of the Prophet. We should not forget that the Prophets are also human beings same as the Saints but they are the Perfect Men who bear the Divine Spirit of Allah. Their prayers are worth of answering. They are very divine, holy and sacred people. They are not mortals like us. They are spiritually great devout because their spirits are holy, divine, perfected and pure.
-- “Prophet, if believing women came to you and pledge themselves to serve no other deity besides God, to commit neither theft nor adultery, nor child-murder, to utter no monstrous falsehoods of their own invention and disobey you in nothing reasonable, accept their allegiance and implore God to forgive them. God is Forgiving and Merciful.” (Mumtahinne, 12)
-- “Believers, you have an enemy in your wives and children, beware of them. But if you overlook their offences and forgive and pardon them, then know that God is Forgiving and Merciful.” (Al-Teghabun, 14)
-- “Yet, there are others among them who believe in God and the Last Day and regard what they give as a means of bringing them close to God and to the Apostle’s prayers. Indeed, closer they shall be brought, God will admit them to His Mercy. God is Forgiving and Merciful.” (Al-Tawbah, 99)
The PROPHET JACOB’S (A.S) IMPLORING FORGIVENESS FROM ALLAH FOR HIS SONS:
“The sons of Jacob said: ‘Father, implore forgiveness for our sins. We have indeed done wrong.’ He replied: ‘I shall implore my Lord to forgive you. He is forgiving and merciful.’ ” (Yusuf, 97-98)
In this verse, the sons of Jacob that said: ‘Implore forgiveness for us’ obviously made their father an intermediary. Then, the claim that a human cannot be an intermediary for another person is wrong. Therefore, there is an intermediary.
Hz. IBRAHIM’S (A.S) IMPLORING FORGIVENESS FOR HIS PARENTS, FOR HIS SONS AND FOR THE BELIEVERS:
“My Lord, make me and some of my descendants steadfast in prayer, our Lord, accept my prayer!”
“Forgive me, Lord! And forgive my parents and all the faithful on the Day of Reckoning.” (Abraham, 40-41)
WHO IS AUTHORISED (PERMITTED) TO INTERCEDE?
“The Gods to whom they pray besides Him have not the power to intercede for them. None can intercede for them, save him who knows the truth and testifies to it.” (Al-Zukhruf, 86)
Those who saw the truth-Allah are the ones who have testified to God. They are the wise and scholar people. They are the ones who know the Truth (Haq), the Lord and “Men A’raf- to know one’s self”. They had known themselves-Man (Human) and their Lord. The people who testify to God are not the scientists.
Those who have seen Allah (testified to Him) are the people who know Spiritual Knowledge (Ledünni - Divinely Bestowed Knowledge). They are the only people who are able to intercede.
The idols- the false gods besides Allah are not able to intercede because the concept: “the gods to whom they pray besides Him”, which is written in the Koran, refers to the stone statues, idols and false gods and goddesses. This is accepted by all the scholars.
“Besides God-Mindunihi” refers to the stone idols. Allah says for them: “They neither benefit nor harm you”, it means that they are not alive. It is foolish, ignorance and unawareness to fear them, to worship them, to be friends with them and to expect intercession from them.
Polytheism is actually the result of ignorance. “It is He (Allah) who is God on earth and in Heaven. The god is One and He is “ALLAH”. The real god is Allah. There is no God but Allah. The God is Allah.” (Al- Zukruf, 84)
He is the God of Hazrat Muhammad and of his descendants Abraham and Ishmael. Their god Allah is one and He is also our God. “We serve other idols only that they may bring us nearer to God.” (Zumar, 3)
According to the above verse, we learn that polytheists worship idols. Whereas, none of the Muslims neither worship nor declare that they worship their Prophets, Apostles and Saints, who are their teachers. They neither serve them nor accept them as a god. They love and respect for their divine Spirit of Allah, who is Wise and the All-Knowing. They know them as their divine apostles, guardians who are near Allah.
The prostration, respect, love and the exaltation of the Muslims and the adherents of the Tariqat of Muhammad before the Apostles, Saints and the Guardians are for their “Divine Spirit” which is “near Allah” and “has the complete knowledge of Allah” that “knows Allah” but not for their physical bodies. Spirit is the Word of Allah. The Command, the Word of Allah is not a second physical being but it is the Divine Attribute of Speech and the Command of Allah the Most High.
Spirit is not a piece or a fragment of Allah. Spirit is not a physical being. Spirit is the command of Allah. Allah says: “The unbelievers do not prostrate before the Koran.” (Inshikak, 21)
Again, Allah declares, “Satan has not prostrated before Adam”. (Al-Baqarah, 34) “Adam” here means the Divine Spirit of Allah who knows all the names and who is Wise and the All-Knowing. (Al-Baqarah, 31) As the Spirit is the word and decree of Allah, it is like the Koran; it means it is not created or mortal and it is not a second being besides Allah either, same as the Koran because it is the Decree, the word of Allah. The Koran is not Allah but it is the attribute of Allah. Spirit is also an attribute of Allah.
Prostrating before the Attribute of Allah is for the Person of Allah. If somebody inclines to the light of Sun, he is not considered to have inclined towards a second being besides the Sun. The Sun cannot be seen and known without its light and the Person of Allah is not known and seen without His attribution. Respect, love and admiration for the attribute of Allah are for the Pure Person of Allah. Here the intermediary is not an ordinary or immature person but a wise, scholar and a Perfect Human who bears the Divine Spirit of Allah. The physical bodies of the Prophets and Saints are just like the bodies of other people and Adam. The physical body of Adam is earth.
It is polytheism to prostrate before the dead bodies or physical bodies. So is to make connection with dead bodies. Prostration and connection is made to the Divine Spirit of Allah because none of the people’s Spirits are theirs. Spirit belongs to Allah. The verses: “I breathed My Spirit to humans” and “Spirit is at Allah’s command” are the proofs of this.
Moreover; the false gods and stone idols mentioned in the above verses and invented by the polytheists have no relation with the attributes and the Person of Allah so that those who prostrate before false, stone idols and statues cannot be near to Allah the Most High who is the infinite, pure, Divine Light. It is confirmed with the Koran that the Apostles, Prophets and Saints are already close to Allah. They are righteous, devout and the friends of Allah whom He loves. Allah has a relation with the Apostles, Prophets and Saints. Allah knows them and exalts them.
“Vessabikunes Sabikun ülaike’l mukarrebun - The righteous are the nearest ones to Allah.” (Al-Vaqia, 11)
The nearest people to Allah are the Apostles and Saints of Allah. He who is near to the Friends of Allah is drawn near Allah by means of this, and he becomes a blessed, pious and righteous believer.
None of the Muslims claims that Apostles and Saints do not have a connection with Allah and they do not bear a Holy Spirit, they are not devout and scholars and their love and respect to them are not for Allah. They have no incontrovertible proofs in their hands; that is to say, they are not able to show any Islamic proofs.
False, made-up gods the polytheists worship have no connection or relation with the Person of Allah, the Most High because there is no other god besides Allah, who is the real god of Hz. Muhammad, Hz. Abraham and of Muslims. Allah is Sole.
Therefore, the Muslims’ love, respect and swearing fealty to the Prophets, Walis and the Perfect Men cannot be resembled the polytheists’ situation mentioned in the above verse. Prostration does not mean worship either. The meaning of prostration is to exalt and respect the Apostles and Saints whom Allah exalted. Allah is the greatest. “Allahu Ekber-Allah is the Most Great.”
“Refiüdderacat - The highest of the degrees.” (Al Mümin, 15) is the proof of it. Allah said that there were ranks or degrees and added that He was the highest of all degrees.
He also mentions about the high ranks and superior, exalted and high beings. Allah is both high and exalted. He is the most high of all the beings.
If it is closely searched, it is seen that those who have chosen the path of Satan but not prostrated before Adam, who do not love human-beings and always consider the Person of Allah free from defect but regard the Apostles and Saints unimportant are called as “Mutazila” in Islamic Literature and they deny the Attributions of Allah. In fact, those who try to disregard Adam, Apostles, and Saints, who are the Perfect Men, are the people who deny the Holy Attributions of Allah. Denying the Attributes of Allah means denying the Pure Person of Allah.
None of the followers of Maturidy and Ashary deny the Attributes of Allah. The People of Sunnat believes the Speech Attribution of Allah. The spirit breathed into Adam is the Word, the Holy Command of Allah. The people of Sunnat do not deny the Speech, the Command Attribution of Allah. The speech is the “Speech” (Kelam) Attribution of Allah.
Ashary and Maturidy believe both the Person and the Attributions of Allah. They also say that Sanctity (Sainthood) of Muhammad will last until the Resurrection. They accept the miraculous powers and the blessings of Saints. They agree that remembering Allah often is an obligatory duty and the beautiful face of the Prophet should always be remembered and loved. “Hilye-i Resulullah - the external appearance and the description of the personal virtues and qualities of Prophet” is true. Thinking about Hilye-i Resulullah means: forming a spiritual connection with him. (Rabıta) (89). It is also said that the Sanctity of the Prophet will continue in his Ahla’l- Bait, in his pious companions and in Muslims. And the Sanctity of Muhammad is the Sanctity of Allah.
Hz. Ali bears the whole Sanctity of the Prophet but Hz. Abu Baqr has taken a great share of the Sanctity of Muhammad. The History of Sufism and Tariqat testifies to this.
These two holy doors of Sainthood, opened from the Prophet Muhammad, the most exalted teaching of Hazrat Ali and Hz. Abu Baqr continue in other saints and spiritual teachers.
What we have written so far is approved, declared and suggested to the Muslims by the praised personalities of Sufism and by the real scholars of the People of Sunnat such as Ghazzali. (90)
The other exceptionable sayings aimed to disregard the Prophets, the Saints, shortly (Adam) human, who are Gnostics, Wise, Perfect Men, and their denials of them by praising Allah only and as well as their explanations on this very subject can never be the statements of the Scholars of the People of Sunnat and of the followers of Maturidy, Ashary and the predecessors of the righteous.
(89) Hilye: It is the description of the face and external appearance of the Prophet (S.A.W.) reported by Hazrat Ali.
(90) See the works of Ghazzali as well as the writings and speeches of all the Religious teachers of Alawi and Baqri Tariqats and 1001 Hadis by Shemseddin Yeşil.
The Supporters of the Person of God (Zat), who claim supposedly that they are the supporters of Unity-Tawhid and of Absolving-Tanzih are the people who pretend to be defending Allah, but, in fact, they try to disregard the great personalities (Apostles and Saints) whom Allah exalted. Those are the people that deny the great personalities through clinging to Allah the Most Great. They attempt to deny the Moon and Stars by defending the Sun. (91)
Hz. Ali and Hz. Abu Baqr are the great, divine, spiritual doors of Hz. Muhammad. Metaphysics is reached through these two ways. Those who try to close them are the people who try to blow out the Divine Light of Allah. These paths are spiritual and divine. Who can put an end to Spirituality?
Allah completes His Divine Light.
May Allah be pleased with the people who help the completion of this Divine Light, and make these doors continue.
“Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him.” (Al-Maidah, 119)
“Vesselamün alel mürselin - Peace be on Apostles.” (Al-Saffat, 181)
“And Praise be to Allah.” (Al-Fatiha, 1) (Al-Saffat, 182)
(91) But, there is a reality-truth: Those who do not like a little light can never love the great light. Those who do not accept the Apostles and the Saints never accept the Lord. They are in the position of Satan then.
RELIGIOUS COMMENTARIES AFTER THE PROPHET OF ISLAM
In general, the following religious commentaries are made after the Prophet in Islam:
- The Religious Commentary of Abbasids: This is the commentary influenced by Maturidies and Asharies.
- The Religious Commentary of Shiites: This is generally influenced by the Scholastic commentators of Mutazile.
- The Religious Commentary of Andalusian Omayyads: This is influenced by Mutazila and the Religious Sect of Zahiriye.
All the other religious sects are included in these three groups.
Abbasid Religious Commentary is based on the Philosophy of Ashary and Maturidy .This is a commentary between the Seen and the Unseen (Zahir –Batın)
The Religious Precept of Iran is based on the Scholastic theologians of Mutazila concerning mainly the exterior aspects of Religion. The religious sect of İsmailiye of the Shiites is a spiritual commentary.
The Religious Commentaries of Andalusia Umayyads depend on Mutazila on extreme exterior aspects. It strongly opposes Ahl-al Bait (The Family of the Prophet), the Hashimids, Walis (Sufism) and Spirituality. It is a philosophical and exterior religious commentary. They made the Religion completely worldly; they ignored the mysticism of Religion and commented on the worldly aspects of religion.
The following are the fathers of ideas of the Religious commentators of Umayyads: Davud-u Zahiri: (Kufa 818- Baghdad 884)
Ibn Hazm (Kurtuba 994- Manta Lişan 1064): He is the founder of Zahiriye Religious Sect. He comes from the descendants of the Umayyad. He is against to all the sects of Shiites and the People of Sunnat.
Ibn-i Taymiyya (Harran 1263-Damascus 1328), Ibn Haldun (Tunis 1322- Cairo 1406): They are mostly the supporters of Zahiriye.
Ibn Rushd (Kurtuba 1126- Merakesh 1198): He is 100 percent Aristotle Logician. He claims that either spiritual or physical (including the Absolute Truth) all kinds of realities can be known through reason, using partial intellect. He is the most rationalist person in Islam. There is no conflict between the commentaries of Abbasids-The People of Sunnat (Ashary and Maturidy Sect) and Shiites (Jafary and Zaydi Sects) in origin. They are close to each other in belief and in practice.
Nevertheless, the religious commentary of the Umayyad opposes both of them. They are always in conflict. They strongly oppose the religious precepts of Shiites and the People of Sunnat. They are very conservative and traditional.
The religious commentary of the Umayyad objects to Spiritualism, mysticism and Sufism. Their antagonisms towards Ahl -al Bait, Sunnat, Sufism, and Tariqat are obvious. They support the Arabic Umayyad Nationalism. They continue the antagonism towards the Family of the Prophet, Hashimids and Sayyids.
And there is also the Religious Commentary of Ottomans after 1517: The Catechism of the People of Sunnat prepared, written and used in order to form a public opinion by Sheikhulislam (the dignitary responsible for matters connected with the canon law etc..) after 1500 is not 80 percent related to the Koran and the Practice (Sunnat) of the Prophet. It is a philosophical, theoretical and theological doctrine established according to the Rules of Aristotle Logic using Partial Intellect and it is not based on Divine Revelation.
This is not the belief of Selef because Selef does not accept rationalist and scholastic tenets. We have already explained this thoroughly in our book called “Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending (Islam’da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş)”: Selefi Salihin (Holy Men of Old) are spiritualists and they are against Philosophy and Scholastic Theology.
Yet, the doctrine of Ashary and Maturidy based on Scholastic Theology is the nearest philosophical, logical and theological belief to the belief of Selef. I emphasize on this reality. Unfortunately, when the catechism of the People of Sunnat is studied today, it is seen that this doctrine is not in accordance with Maturidiye and Ashariya. It was changed and deviated. It was influenced by the doctrines of the Scholastic Theologians of Andalusia Umayyads and the religious sect of Murjia. They suggest that the cruel kings should be obeyed. They take a contrary stand to Sufism, Tariqat, Spiritual Connection and Remembrance (Ziqr). They also prefer the Companions of the Prophet (Ashab) to the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt). This is called “Nasibilik (Supporting the Companions of the Prophet but ignoring the Family of the Prophet ‘Ahl al Bayt’)”. God Forbid!
The opposition to the Shiites is on the summit. This is not fair. The strong opposition to the Shiites causes the opposition to Ahla-l Bait.
As a matter of fact, Abu Sufyan and his family Hinde, Muaviye, Yazid, Yahşi, Marwan are tried to be made innocent and shown as the Companions of the Prophet. But, they are not Muslims and believers, they became Muslims on the conquest Day of Mecca reluctantly because of their fear.
“Say: The faith of those who believed on the Conquest Day will not benefit them. I will not take them into consideration so, stay away from them.” (Al-Sajda, 29)
The Family of Sufyan, the Umayyad had faith on the Day of Conquest reluctantly because of their fear. The verse is very clear. God does not accept the faith of the Family of Sufyan. According to the Koran, they are not believers, so how can they be the sacred companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) then? They are “Muellefetül Kulub (Those whose hearts are hardened)”. (92)
They are called as “Hazrat” (Hz: the title of an exalted personage) and “R.A” (it means: May God be well pleased with him) according to the belief which is a ruse of Catechism of the Ottoman Sheikluslam and made to believe as the belief of the People of Sunnat. It is also forbidden to curse yazid who was a very cruel man and obviously an unbeliever.
Yazid declared his caliphate using his rude force, drinking wine publicly and abandoned the mosque. He was sexually crazy. He also said that he was not a Muslim and drank wine according to the Religion of Jesus. He is the cursed son of the cursed father.
What sort of a faith of the People of Sunnat is this that they call the sinner, cruel, rebellious muaviye as “hazret” whom Shafiis called as “the People of Sinners”; Ashary called as “rebellion” and the Prophet said as the “rapacious, wild king” and “the people of sinner and rebellion”.
Yet, according to the religious sects of Maturidy and Ashary, cruel muaviye and amr ibnül As are rebellious. They are mischief-makers, plotters and intriguers. They rebelled against the true (Haq) Imam: Hz. Shah-ı Walayat Aliyel Murtaza, on account of this against Islam as well, which is infidelity.
On this subject, Taftazani and Hasan al Ashary even said: “Hz. Aisha, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr had made a mistake but they returned back from their mistake, they felt regretful and apologized” but “muaviye and amr ibn as rebelled against the true -Haq Imam Hazrat Ali”. Ashary added saying that “Hz. Ali is such a true Imam that Haq (God) never leaves him.” (93) Imam Shafii also says: “Muaviye is a rebel and cruel”. (94)
(92) “Those who do not believe by heart are the ones who have suspicions in their hearts”. (hadith)
(93) “Kelâm İlminin Başlıca Meseleleri” by Prof. Dr. Ebulvefa el Taftazani trans. By Şerafettin Gölcük, Kayıhan Publ. İstanbul, p. 86 and so on...
(94) See “Mezhepler Tarihi” by M. Ebu Zehra p.334 Üçdal Publ.
The Most High Prophet (S.A.W) said about Ammar bin Yasir, who is a strong believer from Yasir Family and from one of the first martyrs: “Inne Ammar’en tektüluhu fieti’l bağiye - Certainly Ammar will be killed by the rebels, by the people of Sinners.” (95)
And Ammar, who was a strong Companion of the Prophet, was killed by Sufyanies (Muaviya’s Family) during the Siffin Battle.
Said-i Nursi Efendi also approves it saying: “Hz. Ali who is the King of Sanctity made wars in order to protect the Religion and the Caliphate, but Muaviye and his supporters fought for the worldly riches (Sultanate) and Hz. Ammar was killed by Muaviye and his supporters.” (96)
Shortly, the belief called as Catechism of the People of Sunnat was deviated from Maturidy and Ashary Doctrine. It is such a belief that it was changed and formed by Sheikhulislams after 1517. It is not the belief of the People of Sunnat and it cannot be.
We should also mention that in the Literature of Islam “Nasibilik or Nasibiyyun” which means to support the Companions of the Prophet but ignoring the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) whom Allah and His Prophet (A.S.W) loved and praised. This is “infidelity” according to Ghazzali because the opposition of Ahl al Bayt is the opposition of the Prophet.
The religious belief of the Scholastic Theologians of the Umayyad is against the religious precepts of Iran, the Scholastic theologians of Abbasids and all the other religious sects including the People of Sunnat, Maturidy, Ashary, Hanefi, Shaafi, Maliky, Hanbely, Jafari, Ismaily and Zaydi. It is a sort of precept that depends on exteriority and it opposes and hates all the other precepts. The Umayyads and their continuation Andalusia Umayyads continued the hatred of the Hashimites and they prepared and lasted the religious precepts based on the antagonism towards the Hashimites.
(95) Thirmidhi, Müslim, Tac trans. vol.3, p.688
(96) See “Mektubat” p.112-114 and also “Sözler, Hakikat Nurları” by Saidi Nursi (published in 1953)
But Allah the Most High finally destroyed and put an end to this state that went astray and hated the Family of the Hashimites as well as the Family of the Prophet and that was also against the Abbasid Religious interpreters who were Hashimites. (97)
Those who sometimes defend these Umayyads and Andulisian Umayyads in our country are the people who are still the enemies of Hashimites and Abbasids (Shiites and Sunnis). Shortly, they are the enemies of Ahl al Bayt, the Hashimites Family and the Friends of Allah and Tariqat because Tariqats generally come from the Family of the Hasimites, the Sayyids, that is: from the Family of the Prophet “Ahl al Bayt” and the Muslim saints (Walis) of Allah. For this reason, they always strongly oppose Ahl al Bayt and The Friends of God (Walis).
They are completely interested in the exterior aspects of religion. They are neither Sunnis nor Shiites but directly the supporters of the Zahiriye Sect. They are the people who make the religion worldly and replace the caliphate of the Prophet with the kingdom, sultanate and sovereignty. The first person who absurdly started the kingdom, sovereignty in Islam is the King of the Umayyad; Muaviye Ibn Abu Sufyan who was a wild and cruel king. (98)
However, something happened; after the battle between Sultan Yavuz Selim, some of the Ottoman Theological Scholars that supported Umayyads started a strong opposition to Iran and the Shiites using this political conflict. While doing so, they took the advantage of the works of the Theological Scholars of the Andalusia Umayyads (such as Ibn-i Hazım who was the founder of the Zahiriye Sect). As a result, the Theological Scholars of the Ottoman Empire had been the supporters of the Umayyads. They went too far from the Abbasid Religious Precepts and became a strong opponent of Shiites. The People of Sunnat were confused and harmed by this. They intended to make our people love the Umayyads.
(97) “My beloved, truly We have given you Kawsar “Ahl al Bayt” (Kawsar, 1)
“Better is the Night of Qadir than a thousand month” (Qadir, 3)
According to the Islamic Literature, depending on these two verses, Umayyads, who reigned between 661-750 for 89 years; which make 1000 months, were beaten by Abbasids who were Hashimites. It was proved that the holy Family of the Prophet were better than Umayyads that ruled for 1000 months.
(98) The Exalted Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) says: “The Caliphate will last 30 years after me. And then, a rapacious king will come”. Thirty years later, muaviye, who was the son of Sufyan, came to rule.
Abu Davud, Thirmizi, Nesei from Said b. Cumhan, Tac Trans., vol. 3, p. 79, Bekir Sadak, İst.1973 also Sahih-i Bukhari and Tecrid-i Sarih trans. Diy. İşl. Bşk. Publications
In formality, although the other three sects (99) have not been denied by the Ottoman Theological Scholars until now, the Islamic States have never had “an official (formal) Sect”. The official Religious sect has always been the Hanefi Sect. But, after Selim, the theological scholars of the Ottoman Empire started to support Zahiriye Sect. Only the name of the Hanefi Sect was left.
Abu Hanife was fond of Ahl al Bayt. He was the disciple-the adherent of Hz. Imam Jafar. He is well-known with his saying: “If I had not had two more years and if I had not met Jafar al Sadiq, I would have been perished”.
So, the Ottoman Religious Precept consisted of Abbasid Religious Precept that lasted until the problem between Shah Ishmael and Sultan Selim was close to Shiites and it did not have any conflicts with the religious precept of Shiites. However, after Shah Ishmael and Yavuz Sultan Selim, some of the Ottoman Theological Scholars used this advantage and approached the Religious Precepts of the Theological Scholars of Andalusia Umayyads.
Consequently, the Ottoman Religious Commentary after Yavuz Selim became a synthesis of Abbasid-Umayyad Religious Commentary. In the History of the Religious Sects, there was also “Ottoman Religious Commentary” after Yavuz.
The Theological Scholars of Andulisian Umayyads follow the belief of Mutazila. They have no relation with Ashary and Maturidy Doctrines. They support Zahiriye Sect and they do not support the belief of the People of Sunnat.
The theological Scholars of Umayyads are the opponents of Hashimites. As Abbasids and the Shiites of Iran were Hashimites or the supporter of Hashimids, they strongly opposed to them politically and scientifically and they are still continuing it. Our brothers of the People of Sunnat and Shiites must be aware of these facts and should do some researches on them.
After this date, Muaviye, the son of Sufyan, the first founder of the Umayyad and the Umayyads whose names had never been mentioned until Yavuz, in Anatolia, were started to be defended at the Ottoman Medreses (Theological Schools). Yet, the people of Anatolia, who were the supporters of Ahl al Bayt had never accepted this and they stated and proved their hatred and opposition to cursed muaviye, mervan, abu sufyan, hinde and yazid, who were the foes of Hz. Ali, by not naming their children with their names.
Our people of Sunnat are the strong lovers and supporters of the Family of the Prophet. Fortunately, they are still continuing to salute the Family of Hashimites respectfully:
(99) The religious sects of Maliki, Shafii and Hanbely.
“Allahümme salli ala seyyidina Muhammedininnebiyil ümmiyil Haşimiyyi ve ala âlihi ve sahbihi ve sellim.”
To sum up, there are four kinds of religious commentaries in Islam. All the other fractions are included in these four groups: They are as follows:
- Hashimites-Abbasid Religious Commentary: They are four sections in action as Ashary, Maturidy, Selefi and Sufis. All of them are called “Ehl-i Sunnat or Sunnis”.
- The Religious Commentary of Iran Shiites: Jafaries, Zaydis, Ismailis: All of them are the religious commentaries of Shiites.
We call all of them “Shia”. They support the Hashimites, Imam Ali and his sons. Their evidence in Jurisprudence is the Koran and the Sunnat of the Prophet. Their Scholastic (Kelâmi) belief is the belief of Mutazila.
- The religious commentary of the theological scholars of Andulisian umayyads: They are the opponents of Hashimites-Abbasids, Hz. Ali and his sons. They support the State of the Umayyad founded in Damascus, and their founders. They continue the Arabic Nationalism of the Umayyad. In another word, they are racists and tribal.
Their theological belief is the strong rationalism based on Mutazila and Aristotle Logic. Their evidence in Jurisprudence is depended on the exterior meaning of the Koran. They disregard the Sunnat and do not respect it. They have no respect for the Holy Hadiths either. They support Zahiriye sects.
- A Religious Commentary of the Ottoman Scholars emerged after the 16th century as it is explained above.
In this way, Ashary and Maturidy Doctrines, which are the precepts of Hashimites and Abbasids, were mispresented with the Precepts of Andalusia Umayyads and a new kind of religious precept was developed by the Scholastic Theologians of Ottomans and it was called as “The Faith of the People of Sunnat”.
Sufis and independent religious scholars were threatened and restrained by this belief. The preachers and muftis (mufti: official expounders of Mohammedans (S.A.W.) who were connected with the rank of Sheikhulislam (sheikhulislam: specialist on Islamic Law) accused those who opposed to this belief by being astray. They imposed, constituted a belief that confounded truth with falsehood.
Yet Allah the Most High says:
“Velatelbisül hakke bil batıl - Do not confound Truth with Falsehood!” (Baqarah, 42)
After 1517, they harmed both themselves and the Muslim people by means of this. Furthermore, they convinced these confusing beliefs in the name of the founders of the four religious sects. However, they were not like the four expounders of the Islamic Law (Mujtahid), they were the theological scholars of Jurisprudence.
The belief of the Four Mujtahids: Hazrat Hanefi, Shaafi, Maliki and Hanbeli was the belief of the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) and the companions of the Prophet... shortly it was the belief of Hazrat Ali and Hz. Abu Baqr.
The founders of four sects had no relation with the Philosophical and Theological Doctrines based on the Logic of Aristotle even they were Ashary or Maturidy. (100)
These theological and philosophical beliefs have not been set up by the founders of the four sects. They are the beliefs formed using Practical Intellect (reason) theoretically and rationally. This is known by all the scholars.
Although the authority to kill or to move those they thought as infidels or perverse using threats, oppression and fatwa (opinion on legal matters) was taken from the Ulama (Theological Scholars) with the Proclamation of the Republic, the belief, which was a combination of Abbasids, Ashary, Maturidy and Andulisian Umayyad precepts, has continued for years and it is still continuing.
Today, only the authority to give fatwa and to oppress people is taken from them. Ulama is the same Ulama, attitudes are the same attitudes, their beliefs are the same beliefs.
Thus, the discomfort of the Mullahs today is due to the loss of authority to give fatwa. Or else, they would want to deceive people by teaching the religious precepts which were altered in many ways as if the belief of Ahl al Sunnat Vel Cemaat (the Muslims) and to fear them by gaining the authority based on the state to rule and to set up a religious dominion on them. They want to continue their personal benefits in this way.
They certainly know that the prophetic, real Islamic Canonical Jurisprudence was abolished when Imam Hasan gave up the duty of being a Caliphate and then a tyrant, dominion kingdom was in charge of it.
(100) See: “Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending (İslâm’da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş)” by Kâzım Yardımcı, İzmir, 1988.
The sovereignty brought out by cruel, wicked Muaviye was completely opposite to Islâm. It was continued with the name as “Sultanate” in Abbasids after Umayyads and “Kingdom” in Ottoman Empire and “Sovereignty of Shah” in Iran. And this false Caliphate was told to the people as it was the real Caliphate.
The real five Caliphs were Hz. Abubaqr, Omar, Osman, Ali and Hasan. (101) The caliphates after Hz. Hasan are not true and they are kings. It is not possible to mention the Shariat of the Prophet where there is no real Prophetic Caliphate. As a matter of fact, when History is studied, it is seen that the Punishment System of Shariat (Ukubat) was not applied but the punishment was asserted with the orders of the Kings. (102) The Punishment Laws of Islam were applied 50 percent in Abbasids. There is no such a concept as Shariat in Umayyads anyway. It is completely depended on human nature and very cruel.
The law system and the Transaction Law of Shariat are actually personal. It is not possible to prevent it. For instance, in Devolution of Inheritance, any family has a right to share the inheritance according to Shariat and have it registered in Land Register because Civil Law accepts the free consent of Partition (Division). Muslims were not forced to do so by nobody and by no law. Divorce is legal unlike in Christianity. Spouses (wife or husband) are not ordered not to divorce. In none of the laws, there is no law such as forbidding the recitation of the Koran, performing worships or similar enforcements. They do not exist in laws in Turkey.
Shortly, there is no such a law that prevents Muslims from living in Islamic way.
The Criminal Law of Islam was applied neither by Umayyad (except Omar b. Abdulaziz) nor by Abbasids or Ottomans. History testifies to it. All the theological scholars of Religion are aware of this fact. Then, what is the problem of these Mullahs? Wine shops (taverns) and brothels were left from the Ottomans to today. Their problem is to gain the authority of fatwa (decision of mufti) supported by the government, as mentioned above; and to force people to respect them and to have prestige by frightening them.
(101) The Caliphate of the Four Caliphs lasted 29 and a half years (29,5). Hz. Hasan served as a caliph for six months and it makes totally 30 years. Our Prophet said: “The Caliphate will last 30 years after me and then a cruel, sinner king will come.”
(102) The law books of Fatih and the Codes of Laws of Kanuni were not related to Shariat, they were the personal orders of Fatih and Kanuni. The Ottoman People had been ruled by these orders and law books.
If it is studied, it will be seen that the Western Criminal Laws agree with the crimes Islam considers as illegal, but their ways of punishment are different.
When the Religions to which the Divine Books were sent are examined, it is seen that, in the systems of 28 Prophets, of our Prophet and of the Five Caliphs, including Hz. Hasan, as well as in the Islamic Shariat Laws, there is no imprisonment. In Islam, the suspect is under arrest until the verdict of the Judge.
The punishment in Islamic Criminal Law is physical and financial such as retaliation, blood money and beating with a stick. The criminal either pays for the penalty or he is beaten by a stick and then he is released. Imprisonment is a way of punishment which came from the ancient Kingdoms in History. The practices such as keeping people in narrow places and imprison them are the practices of Caesars, Pharaohs (Ramses), Chosroes, Omayyads Abbasids, Ottomans and of similar sultans, shahs and kings.
There is no prison in the Law Systems of all the Prophets and the Five Caliphs. History, the Four Books (the Koran, Tawrat (Torah), Zabur, (the Psalms of David) and Injil (Gospel, New Testament) are the witnesses of this.
Another name of the prisons is “The graves of the alive”. It is as if putting them in a narrow place before they die. If a person stays in prison for 10 years, he is withered psychologically and physically, in addition to the great suffering on his family he causes.
His body and spirit are destroyed psychologically and now that he is depressed. In this case, what improvements (rehabilitation) do the prisons, jails enable for people? His family, his wife and his children are faced to all kinds of dangers. He loses his freedom.
How well is a person who is not free? This subject remains to be discussed.
It is also true that even the worst king of the Ottoman Kings is much closer to the Divine Family of the Prophet and the Wise mystical and spiritual teachers of Tariqat than the Theological Scholars (Ulema) of the Ottoman Empire are. They are very affectionate and respectful to them.
The Ottoman Palace have already showed sympathy and respect to the Masters of Sufism and Tariqats and the Family of the Prophets (Sayyids). I deem to tell this truth as a duty of conscience although it is a historical truth. In our opinion, if the Ottoman Kings had not behaved in this way, this conservative Ottoman Theological Scholars would have made it worse. We would not have been able to listen to Turkish Art Music or would have been deprived of music. This was prevented by the Ottoman Kings and the Palace. There were also some great personalities among these theological scholars (Ulama). I consider them free from this subject.
In Islam, there is no hereditary system. Islamic law does not concern the right of heirs but the Sultanate System is based on hereditary, which is the right of the son or brother to receive the title of the King or Emperor in the same family.
In Turkey, the supporters of Radical Secularism are either unaware of these facts or they are influenced by some materialists. Or, most of them do not have a detailed Islamic Knowledge. After 1517, in the religious commentaries and precepts of the theological Scholars of the Ottomans, which were equipped by a thousand kinds of superstitions, legends and silly tales and which was away from the real essence of Islam, the Real Shariat System of the Prophet does not exist and even more, this Ulama class does not wish this system.
However, in the systems of the Prophet and of his five Caliphs together with Imam Hasan, there was not any murdering or punishing with fatwa. For this reason, these mullahs do not have a place in real Islam.
All kinds of religious service was done for the sake of Allah in the Prophetic System. Religious service requiring payment exists in Sultanic Caliphate. They know this reality very well so they do not want the real Islamic system as the real Islamic system is based on Republicanism and freedom. Also, the economical view of the Prophet is social. In the real Islamic System, the rich do not have a power of dominion over the society.
“Beware! This property shall not be the property which is circulated between the rich among you and dominion over you.” (Hash, 7)
Most of the Ulema class and half Mullahs who are their continuation, are actually a kind of materialists. They have made the religion worldly and the Paradise physical. They almost destroyed the divine characteristics of religion. What they want is to be given back their authority of fatwa and to acquire the costume of religion. They also deceive people by adding some Arabic words into their speech in order to influence them. Their only aim is to force people to obey them and to exploit them by means of this.
They also want to be shown respect while walking around the town with their gowns and turbans. For this reason, they desire the forceful sultanate system to come back, which is suitable with their personal benefits and based on a false caliphate instead of a republican system.
These conservative, materialist mullahs, who support the violence, actually want their King but not Shariat. I consider those who support republic and freedom free from this subject and I send them my regards.
The radical secularists in Turkey constantly criticizing the Shariat, as they do not know these facts and do not have detailed Islamic Knowledge and as some of them are influenced by materialists. Therefore, they unintentionally give the advantage to those mullahs who support the Kings and Emperors. This is what those Mullahs already want: They would like the radical secularists to rebuke Shariat aggressively so that they will complain them to people, as they are the enemies of Religion.
If secularists defend for democratic secularism instead of radical secularism, this dangerous, fanatic mullah class, who objects to the Republican System but supports sovereignty, will lose and our Republic will be protected because mullahs are not the supporters of Shariat but they are only the noisy advertisers of it. There is no real religion and real Islam where there is no freedom and democracy.
Monarchism, which is pestered Islam by the Umayyad and which is based on the personal principles of the Kings, Emperors and Sultans, is an extremely cruel, fascist and a despot system. It is a dictatorship. The existence of some of the good kings such as Omar b. Abdulaziz and Murat Hudavendigar do not disprove that the monarchic system is the opposite of Islamic system. The favors of the good Kings are their own goodness, but not because of the favor of the Monarchy. These good kings are very rare in History anyway; they are only a few. The most important thing is the system. The Islamic System is democratic and it is respectful to the human rights and the freedom of people.
The Western Democracy is not Islamic but social democracy is the nearest to Islam. Cordial piety does not exist in a place where there is no democracy.
According to the Prophet’s Hadith, “The Caliphate-Shariat will last 30 years after me. Then, a rapacious, cruel Monarchy will start”. Therefore, if a person who is not like Hz. Ali, Hz. Abu Baqr, Hz. Omar, Hz. Osman, I mean (That is to say), not like the Four Caliphs, he is not able to serve as a caliph and Shariat cannot be applied. It is a fascist regime or a dictatorship then. Cruelty and oppression are practiced in the name of Shariat. Every personal order of the King is shown as the order (command) of the Shariat and Ulema approves it because of their fear. The name of cruelty becomes shariat. God Forbid!
The Four Caliphs were very pious, just and democratic great personalities; and they were loved by their people very much.
THE RELIGIOUS COMMENTARY OF SUFISM
This is the religious commentary of the Prophet, His Companions, Hz. Ali (K.V.), Hz. Abu Baqr and the great religious teachers and the Wise Saints who follow them, which depends on the Koran and the Sunnat (Divine Message).
It is not related with the rationalist precepts mentioned above. The History of Sufism, the books of the Religious teachers (Perfect Men) and of the Wise Saints are obvious. It is completely based on Divine Message. It is not an explanation made using logic or philosophy; it is not a rationalist or philosophical explanation.
Spirit is the Command of Allah like the Koran. The Koran is also the command of Allah. Command (decree) is the attribution of Allah. For this reason, the spirit of Adam that bears the quality of Knowledge, that is to say the “Speech”, “the command” attributes of Allah is prostrated.
“When the Koran is recited, the unbelievers do not prostrate.” (Inshikak, 21)
We learn that the Believers prostrated before the Koran depending on the above verse. The Command, the Koran, the Prophet, the Saint, the Apostle... all of them have the Knowledge and Wisdom of Allah. All the love, respect, kneeling down, obeying them, swearing allegiance to them mean prostrating before them.
The Koran and the Holy Spirit is the Word, the Decree of Allah. Prostration does not mean to worship but it means to show respect to the Pious People.
“We worship them (idols) only that they may bring us nearer to God.” (Zumar, 3)
As it is seen in the above verse, the polytheists worship the idols and accept them as a god (small gods).
None of the Muslims (adherents, disciples) accepts the Prophets and Saints as a god. Muslims know that the Prophets and Saints are the beloved friends of Allah and their spirits have been united with God and they are the bearers of Divine Spirits. They expect intercession (prayer, favor) from their scholar, wise spirits but not from their bodies.
They never worship the Prophets and Saints. A Prophet or a Saint is already drawn near to Allah. They are righteous.
Once again, the expression “besides Allah” (repeated in many parts of the Koran) means the idols and statues the polytheists worship. All the theological Scholars of Islam know this. Those false, invented gods have no relation with Him.
We would like to add that faith is against bad behaviors. Faith does not cause wickedness. It causes good deeds. The good actions are the signs of faith same as the dawn is the sign of the Sun. Unbelief is against good actions. Infidelity is the reason of wicked actions like the bad smell is the sign of impurity and the good scent is the sign of flowers and roses.
Then, if an unbeliever does a good thing, it is hypocrisy.
“Allah does not need their alms; they are arrogant and boastful and enjoin others to be niggardly.” (Al-Baqarah, 264) (Nisa, 38)
Hypocrisy is the worst action, it is even polytheism even if a believer does a bad action, it is because of his carnal passions into which immorality breathed.
“I inspired the self with Knowledge of sin and piety.” (Al-Shams, 8)
It is due to the supremacy of his physical side. It means that a believer may do a bad behavior because of an incentive. This bad action is not performed because of his faith.
This matter is already stated in the Koran as follows:
“The believer does not object to the command of Allah except a motive which he cannot help.” (Anfal, 17)
Therefore, it is not correct to say: “Good behaviors do not benefit unbelievers” as they cannot do any pious actions. The behavior of an unbeliever that seems good is a hypocrisy and hypocrisy is a bad behavior itself, it is polytheism.
“Bad actions do not harm the faith” is also an incorrect statement because faith does not cause bad actions. But; a believer may do a bad deed because of a motive which he cannot prevent and due to the supremacy of his physical side and his/her carnal desires.
The believer is punished according to the rule. “Punishment is applied to the doer of the action”. Yet; insistence and continuation upon grave sins is a sign of unbelief and a believer does not persist in grave sins. Believers commit grave sins very rarely and when he does it, he feels regretful and he repents. He implores Allah to forgive him. He abondons great sins and starts good works. He repairs it with good works.
This is what the Sufis of the People of Sunnat think on this matter, which is also agreed by Hasan al Basri, Muhammad Ghazzali and other Sufis. It is also the reality.
The opinion of the Murjia Sect: “Bad deeds do not harm the faithful and good deeds do not benefit unbelievers” is a wrong interpretation. It is a trick to make cruel people innocent in order to protect and provoke bad kings, shahs, rulers, emperors, sultans shortly the rebels. And, it is also to make people obey the cruel dictators, to weaken them to fight against them and to consent to them. Whereas in Islam, there is a rule: “Consenting to cruelty means cruelty”. According to Murjia Sect, the account of the cruel are sent to Allah and Shariat is not able to judge them. They render their accounts particularly to Allah after they die. This wrong opinion of Murjia is contrary to Islamic Law and to the principle of “equality in justice” in all the Laws of the World. There is no privilege for certain people in Justice and Shariat.
In Islam, believers are free. Compulsory obedience to the leader is not accepted, there is no obedience to a leader by force.
Islamic system is a democratic system in origin. Believers have the right to swear allegiance to a leader or to refuse him and to break their promise with him using their free will. Islamic Law exerts the right of resisting against cruel leader. It also considers consenting to cruelty as a cruelty itself because Islamic system is a democratic system in origin.
Islam is social and it supports freedom. It enjoins the administration (consultation) and trust on efficient people and it suggests and commands that the leader should be a good person. Although the Western Democracy is not Islamic, in the period of historical thought, regarding that it is influenced by the essence of Islam (such as equality, social equity, social support) and as it also has the account of recognition of the right of defense by the suspected, the acceptance of social state and the individual’s freedom of thought, independent courts and legislation based on consultation, which are the principles of Islam stated and suggested 1400 years ago, the social democracy that contains all these principles or should contain them is the nearest system to Islam.
The only way to protect the Republic, Social Democracy and freedom is to correct the religious precepts of the Ottomans that are still effective on our people and that has changed in many ways and to set up the belief of the Sufi People of Sunnat, which is the most suitable for the essence of Islam. It means to corroborate the belief of the people of Sunnat in accordance with Haq, the Koran, Sunnat and with the essence of Islam. If it is not done, the Republic is always in danger because the Ottoman belief of Sunnat is established on a Sultanate system.
This is the opinion of this sincere, humble, democrat and republican Muslim. I propose this opinion of mine to all the democrat and republican brothers and friends who live and understand Islam. And I suggest everybody to protect our Republic.
Now, let us see how Republic is accepted! The Law about the Abolition of the Rank of the Caliphate is as below:
“Essentially, as the meaning and the concept of the Caliphate are hidden in the words “Republic and Government”, the rank of the Caliphate is abolished.” (The law number 431)
According to this law, the false caliphate (the position connected on the person of whom he presented it) had been abrogated and it was definitely indicated that the meaning and concept of the real Caliphate was hidden in the word “Republic”. This is the truth.
Since the real Prophetic Caliphate cannot be joined with sultanate; and since the personalities such as Hz. Ali, Hz. Abu Baqr and those who look like them such as Sayyid Abdulqadir Gilani, Sayyid Ahmed al Rufai, Sayyid Ahmed el Bedevi, Sayyid Ibrahim al Dusuki, Omar b. Abdulaziz, Junayd al Baghdad, Ahmed Yesevi, Muhammad Bahaaddin, Hadji Bektash-i Wali, Mawlana Jalaladdin Rumi, Yunus Emre (May peace be with them and their staff do not live in today’s Islam world and also in Turkey, in this case, the regime which the real Muslims must strongly support is the pluralistic democracy based on freedom which is today’s Republic System that accepts the individuals’ freedom of thought, conscience and religion and that completely liberates religious education and worship. It is the regime of Republic.
May Allah protect our Republic!
Our Prophet ordered to obey the Christian King of Abyssinia (today’s Ethiopia) and the laws of that country as they liberated the Islamic teaching and worship like remembrance (ziqr), prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and almsgiving. This is a historical truth I would like to take the attention of all my Muslim brothers on this subject and advise them to be alert and not to follow those utopian mullahs, who deal with absurdities.
The person who is not even a lecturer or a professor cannot be the Scholar of Religion and I would like my friends to know that those who are not a professor or a lecturer are only a technician or practitioner of the Religion Service. (103)
I would like to emphasize that none of the professional officials (lecturers, professors) who know the essence of religion have never suggested or will suggest radical beliefs.
In addition to this, the transaction of Islamic Shariat is based on the person himself, so there is no way to prevent it and it cannot be prevented anyway. That is to say, the transaction Law of Islam is left to the choice of individuals. Laws do not prevent people to practice the transaction law in their own lives.
Muslims apply the transaction Law of Shariat in their lives as they wish. For instance; although monogamy (the practice of having only one wife or husband) is controlled by law, a husband may marry a second wife as long as his first wife, whom he has officially married, consents. This kind of practice is left to the lawsuit brought by his officially married wife. Practice is applied in this way. The individual transaction of Islam is not forbidden by law. It is left to the choice of Muslims. Islam is a divine system. The divine system can only be performed under the leadership of the Prophets, Saints and the heirs of the Prophet. When we study History, we clearly see that Islam was practised only during the Prophet’s, the pious great people’s such as Hz. Ali’s, Hz. Omar’s time which lasted 30 years.
Then, the divine system cannot be performed by the people who are not divine or who are not qualified with the qualities of Allah (104), and that are not pious, just and morally good (Pious people are the Muslim Saints and the Divine People). Such divine people and pious Muslims who are close to them are not present now.
(103) See also related chapters in “The Sinless (Günahsızlar)” and “Muhammad-Jesus-Adam (Muhammed-İsa- Adem)”
(104) Allah the Most High says in one of the sacred traditions in our Prophet’s tongue: “Qualify yourselves with the qualities of Allah.” From Sirrül Esrar by Abdulkadir Gilani, p.99 trans. by A. Akçiçek, Rahmet Publication, İstanbul 1964
Therefore, we say that those who have exterior Knowledge should not claim that they are able to carry out this Islamic System. The scholars, who have exterior Knowledge (scientists), are not divine or devout people. He who is not devout cannot be the Leader of Islam. If he does, he cannot be successful because he is not able to practise it. Therefore, nobody should attempt for such a duty and disturb Islam and Muslims until the promise of Allah comes true. (105)
The Umayyad, Abbasids and Ottomans had never applied the Shariat of our Prophet and they were not able to practise it either because they were not pious like the Family and the Companions of the Prophet. They were not a pious society.
The amateur scholars of Religion who are not professionals or even the professional ones do not have the knowledge, piety, justice and good moral qualities of the Ahl al Bayt, the Companions who are close to the Prophet and the Saints of Allah. He who represents the Prophet with only the exterior Knowledge cannot be heir, a caliph of the Prophet. The majority of the society should also be pious.
Our Prophet (A.S.W.) is indeed an informer. He is a conveyer. He is an entire Scholar, Apostle, a Prophet, a Saint and Heir. He bears the Most Holy Spirit honored by the Speech of Allah and by His Divine Light. He is a person whose heart is revealed by the Angels, Spirits, the Most Holy Spirit, the faithful Spirit (the Angel Gabriel) and who speaks with them and who was chosen by Allah and who is a deputy of Allah like the other Prophets.
He is a conveyor who speaks with Allah. His conveyance about Allah is for all people and general. He is a bearer of good news and an admonisher. He is a blessing for the entire Universe.
He is a scholar and a conveyor who possesses the qualities we stated above. The Koran was both descended and taught to him.
He is the conveyor who knows Allah and the Koran most. Then, He is not an ordinary conveyor.
The following Koran verses show that the qualities or the specialties of the Prophet given to him by Allah.
-“Know very well that Allah helped Him. Allah descended upon him His tranquility (sakinah) and supported him with His invisible warriors.” (Tawbah, 40)
(105) “Ketebellah’u le eğlibenne ene ve Rüsûlih-Allah inscribed in the Book (in Lawh-i Mahfuz) that Allah and His Apostle will surely triumph.” (Mujadele, 21)
-- “Say: He hears only what is good for you. He believes in Allah. He puts his trust in the faithful. He is a blessing to the true believers among you.” (Tawbah, 61)
-- “Do not consider the addressing of the Prophet in the manner you address one another.” (Al-Nur, 63
-- “The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on each other. His wives are their mothers.” (Ahzab, 6)
-- “Allah wants to remove uncleanness from you Ahla-l Bayt, and to purify you.” (Ahzab, 33)
--“When Allah and His Apostle decree in an affair, then there is no other choice for true believers men or woman. He that disobeys God and His Apostle strays far indeed.” (Ahzab, 36)
--“We have sent you forth as a witness and as a bearer of good news and warning.” (Al-Fath, 8)
--“So that you may have faith in God and His Apostle and that you may assist Him, honour Him and praise Him morning and evening (exalt His glory).” (Al-Fath, 9)
--“Those that swear fealty to you, swear fealty to Allah Himself. The hand of Allah is above their hands.” (Fath, 10)
--“It is He that has sent forth His Apostle with guidance and the true faith, so that He may exalt it above all religions. Sufficient is God as a witness.” (Fath, 28)
--“Muhammad is God’s Apostle. Those who follow Him are ruthless to the unbelievers but Merciful to one another.” (Fath, 29)
--“Believers, do not raise your voices above of the Prophet, not shout aloud when speaking to him as you do to one another, lest your labors come to nothing without your knowledge.” (Al-Hujurat, 2)
--“Muhammad we have sent you forth but as a blessing to all the Universe.” (Al-Anbiya, 107)
--“Yours is a sublime nature.” (Kalam, 4)
--“(O Muhammad) We shall make you recite Our revelations and you shall forget none of them.” (A’la, 6)
--“(O Muhammad) Give advice! Your duty is only to give advice.” (Gashiya, 21)
--“You are not their keeper.” (You do not force them) (Gashiya, 22)
--“I swear by that Muhammad saw Him on the near horizon.” (Takwir, 23)
--By the declining star, your master (Muhammad) is not in error, nor is he deceived:
He does not speak out of his fancy.
Whatever the Perfect Man (the Prophet) Muhammad says is an inspired revelation.
He is taught by one who is powerful and mighty.
He has a super intelligence. He stood.
He was on the uppermost horizon.
Then he drew near and came down.
The distance between him was two bows’ length or even closer.
He revealed to His servant that which He revealed. His eyes did not deny his vision, his heart was not astonished.
How can you, then, question what he sees?
He beheld him once again at the Sidra Tree while descending.
Near it is the Garden of Repose. (Mewa)
When that tree was covered with what covered it.
His eyes did not wander, nor did they turn aside.
For, he saw the greatest sign of Lord.” (Najm, 1-18)
The qualities and attributes of Muhammad concerning the believers are as follows:
He is the owner of the believers. He is the intercessor of them. He prays for them. He is their instructor. He has the entire Knowledge.
“I taught Adam all My names.” (Al-Baqarah, 31)
As for this verse, the Prophet, the Perfect Man knows all the names... yet Allah is the only one who knows all the names. Therefore, the Perfect Man attains the entire Knowledge. The Angels confessed and declared that their knowledge was limited on this matter and they accepted the prostration before Adam. (Al-Baqarah, 30-34)
Thus, Adam (Human-Man) is a mirror to the Person and attributes of Allah and also to all His Knowledge. Yet, the Knowledge of Allah is infinite.
The Perfect Men-The Prophets have the entire Knowledge. Our Prophet is also the Teacher of the believers. He purifies the dirt of the self. He is the Scholar of the Universe who knows Allah, the Koran and the Prophecy perfectly and who teaches them to the believers.
“I sent forth to you an apostle of your own who will recite to you Our revelations and purify you of sin, who will instruct you in the Book and in wisdom, teach you that of which you have no knowledge.” (Al-Baqarah, 151)
He is also Merciful and Compassionate to the believers. He helps them through inspiration. “Rauf” means: “Benevolent (Clement, Kind)” the One who inspires. He is fond of believers. He is “Benevolent and Compassionate”. They are the attributes of Allah and He bestowed these attributions on His Prophet.
“There has now come to you an honorable apostle of your own, one who grieves at your troubles and cares for you, one who is Benevolent and Merciful to true believers.” (Al-Tawbah, 128)
The Knowledge of the Prophet is to a certain limit in comparison with the Knowledge of Allah but it is not limited in comparison with the Knowledge of all the creatures. He is more scholar than all the other human beings, the Angels and the Genies.
“Take counsel with them in the conduct of the worldly affairs.” (Al-Imrans, 159 - Al-Shura 38)
The above verse does not mean that the Knowledge of the Prophet is limited.
“Most People know the exterior of this life, but of the life to come they are heedless.” (Rum, 6-7)
As it is understood from the above verse, people know certain things about this world and the Prophet may consult them in the worldly affairs because the Prophet knows what they know and he also consults them in order to give them a personality and to become a friend with them. The Prophet gets his knowledge from Allah and Allah informs him about what is necessary.
“Ve ye’tûneke bimeselin illa ci’nâke bi’l hak ve ahsene tefsira-No sooner will they come to you with an argument, then We shall reveal to you the truth and properly explain it (or whatever they ask you we’ll send you the answer of it immediately).” (Furqan, 33)
He attains a lot more glorious attributions that do not exist in the Koran, in the holy traditions, in the sacred sayings and in other human beings.
He (the Prophet Muhammad (A.S.W.) is Owner, Master, Guide, Saint and Intercessor. He is the person who purifies us.
Therefore, our Prophet and other Prophets (May peace be with them) are human beings regarding their physical sides.
They had a physical body. They were born; they ate, drank, got married, lived and died. But, the spirit which is the decree of Allah does not die. Their physical body dies. Yet, none of the Muslims say that the Prophets and Saints are ordinary people by saying “our Prophet is also a human” and by denying their pure divine spirit whose divine attributions we have already explained above. He is the like of us. He is a human being, a Man but He is the person who is given divine attributes concerning his Divine Holy Spirit mentioned above.
Our Prophet (A.S.W.) is a person who bears a divine spirit of Allah and he is a divine person due to this. The Perfect Human-Adam (A.S.) is not a god but He is a divine human being who possesses the Holy Spirit, which is the Command of Allah. Our Prophet and the other Prophets as well as the saints, who reach Allah, are Holy and Sacred. They are divine and pious. They are close to Allah.
“Kulirruhi min emri Rabbi-Say: Spirit is from my Lord’s command.” (It is the Speech Attribution of Allah) (Isra, 85)
Spirit is not created, it is the decree of Allah. The Attribution of Allah is not particularly the Person of Allah but it is not a separate being either. For this reason, Spirit which is the decree, the Word, the attribution of Allah is divine same as the Sun and its colours. The colour of the Sun is not the Sun itself but it is not a different, second being either. Then, when we say, “spirit is divine”, we mean that “Spirit is the attribution of Him. This is not polytheism because spirit is not a piece of Allah. Attribution is not a second being. Attribution is the quality of the presence of Allah.
Spirit is the Decree of Allah, so is the glorious Koran. The Koran is also the decree of Allah. For this reason, Allah says: “The unbelievers do not prostrate before the Koran.” (Inshikak, 21)
It is an obligatory duty for the believers to prostrate before the Koran. Yet, the Koran is not Allah, it is not a piece of Allah either. It is the decree of Allah. The spirit is also the decree of Allah. Spirit attains all the names of Allah.
According to the above verse, the Knowledge of our Prophet cannot be to a certain limit compared to others rather than Allah, because the verse means: “Whatever they ask you, I inform you the meaning, the answer of it.”
Therefore, the Angels have prostrated before the Holy Spirit of Allah in Adam, which is the decree of Allah and which knows everything-all the Knowledge. They did not prostrate before his body. “I taught Adam all My names.” (Al Baqarah, 32)
The body of Adam is in the position of the Kaaba during the prostration because prostrating is for the Person and Attribution of Allah. Prostration before the body or creature means polytheism.
If the Angels prostrated before the body of Adam, they would be a polytheist. It is already reported very clearly in the Sura of Baqhara that Adam (A.S.W.) is more scholar than the Angels are and the Holy Spirit of Adam is more exalted than theirs.
The Angels did not become a polytheist because of their prostration before Adam. Then, why should a disciple (a student) become a polytheist when he shows respect and prostrates before a Scholar Man. Prostrating does not mean worshipping. It means exalting him, respecting him and accepting his superiority. Prostrating means showing regards. Prostration during the ritual prayer itself does not mean to worship. Ritual prayer is worship with all the pillars of it. The intention is in order to worship, the prostration itself cannot be worship. Prostration is also done to repent, to show respect and to thank as well as to worship.
There is also the prostration of gratitude which means being thankful, it is according to the intention. Prostrating before the Wise-Scholar Man is compulsory because the prostration is actually done before the knowledge of the Wise Person. Prostrating before the Perfect Man is for the pure Spirit of Allah which exists in Him and which is the Pure Decree of Allah. The word or the Decree of Allah is not a second being. The attribution of Allah is the quality of Allah. The quality of Allah does not have an entity. The prostration before divine quality is before the Divine Person. Quality is the attribution of the Person. (Zat)
He who does not prostrate before the attribution of Allah and who does not love him does not have a respect for the Person of Allah. It is demagoguery and straying astray for such a person to defend the Person of Allah and to mention Oneness-Unity because he falls into the situation of the damned Satan then.
“Vealleme Adamel esmae külleha-I taught Adam all the names, everything.” (Al-Baqarah, 31)
All the names are known only by Allah and He taught this Universal-whole knowledge to Adam, to the Man who bears the Decree, the Word and the Holy Spirit of Him by His grace.
Man is an object of the whole knowledge of Allah. The Perfect Man is not a god but he attains divine qualities.
It is necessary and an obligatory duty to prostrate before the Koran and the Perfect Man-Adam, the Wise Man who is the Decree and the Word of Allah. The younger and immature people should respect the elders and mature people. Prostrating or bowing down before the scholar and Wise is an obligatory duty and this does not make one inferior, on the contrary, it exalts those who prostrate because prostration is done for the Knowledge, Wisdom and the Holy Spirit-the attribution of Allah.
The prostration before Adam (the Scholar-Perfect Man) means exaltation and respect, but not worshipping Him because there is no other God besides Allah. (Actions are according to intentions) (A Sacred tradition)
The Prophets also know the inner world and dreams are related to inner world. (106) The Perfect Man is the Person of Revelation (intuition). He knows the inner world as much as Allah reveals.
(106) “Once, we have told you: ‘Your Lord encompasses all people (This was the good news of Badr War)’. ‘We have made the vision which We showed to you and the cursed tree in the Koran, a test for men’s faith.” (Al-Isra, 60)
“Joseph, tell us, man of Truth, the meaning of that dream.” (Joseph, 46)
“Thus, did We establish Joseph in that land and he dwelt there as he pleased. We bestow Our mercy on whom We will and shall never deny the righteous their reward.” (Joseph, 56)
“Muhammad, this is the information about unknown which we have revealed to you.” (Joseph, 102)
Then, Allah informs about the unknown and the verse continues:
“You were not present when they conceived their plans and schemed against him. Yet, strive as you may, most men will not believe.” (Joseph, 103)
Our Prophet already said that Gabriel was seen to Him. Is Gabriel not from the inner world? Gabriel would be seen to him mostly in the inner world.
“Nezele bihi ruhil emin ala kalbike-The Faithful (Holy) Spirit is brought down into your heart.” (Al-Shuara, 193)
The Prophets, unbelievers and others are human beings like us.
“Haza illa beşerün mislüküm. Is this man not a mortal like yourselves?” (Al-Anbiya, 3)
“Ma entüm illa beşerün mislüna-You are but mortals like ourselves.” (Yâ Sin, 15)
Yes, they are mortals; but what kind of mortals? They are the people who speak with Allah and the Angels.
When we speak about the human-mortal sides of our Prophet and the other Prophets, we must speak very carefully and indicate their holy divine spirit and attributes by exalting them through distinguishing from all the other ordinary people. For when Allah explained why the unbelievers denied the Prophets, He said that one of the reasons was they said: “haza misluna-they are mortals just as we are” and they became unbelievers. (107)
It is confirmed by the Koran that those who say “they are mortals just as we are”, that is to say, who deny that they are extraordinary mortals and who accept them as ordinary people, became unbelievers.
(107) “Nothing prevents men from having faith when guidance is revealed to them but the excuse: “Can it be that God has sent a human-being as an apostle.” (Isra, 94)
“They said: ‘Shall a human-being be our guide?” and they became unbelievers.” (Teghabun: 6)
The Madrasas and Tekkes grown in Islam occasionally lost the required qualities. But, caring about the benefits and favors of other people is the main principle in Sufism because this was the characteristic of the Great Muhammad, who is the founder of this path, and of these great Muslim saints who followed him.
The following extract about some of the adherents of the Tariqats and Sufis who went astray is taken from Sayyid Ahmed al Rufai (May Allah bless those who love him!) who is a very strong authority and the leader of Gnosis. It is his right to speak about this matter and we do not want to comment on those false religious teachers and sheiks.
Whereas, we should not disregard the reality that the presence of bad teachers, sheiks, pirs and adherents in Tekkes and Madrasas does not cause the leave of these schools. There may be bad teachers and students in all the schools, tekkes or medreses. They are punished. These schools need not be abolished due to this. Muhammad Said-i Nursi also agrees with this opinion on this subject. (108)
Hz. Ahmed al Rufai, the Sayyid of Gnostics and the teacher of the Universe says:
“It should be known attentively that the essence of those who reached the reality in the path of Sufism is pure. The path they follow is pure and pleasant. Their only aim is their Lord. Their manners are in accordance with the Sunnat of the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.). Those who run in other paths go astray but they are not aware of their states.
My son, you will find that most people in Sufism are impious. They are the people who desire to make Sufism a capital in their tongues and pens (writing). They are the ones who have broken all the rules and pretended to support freedom. They invent new things breaking all the rules. You see that they are ignorant and heedless of the reality. Their understanding is to a certain degree; and they are liars and their thoughts are dark.
(108) The name of Said-i Nursi Efendi (k.s.) is Muhammad Said.
They hate good people. They dislike those who are pious, ascetics and faithful and who have reached spiritual purity.
The personalities who reach the high most degree in Sufism cannot be described and their spiritual states cannot be comprehended.
They have only some signs. First, their biggest goal is to get rid of the self and its carnal desires. They do not conform to the carnal mind and world in their words and affairs. All their feelings are pure from the dust of the separation from God.
They are together with the self, but away from all the ugly manners of it.
They wander among people but people do not harm them.
They have a heart but it is above in the presence of God. Only the good deeds are manifested from their hearts.
They have several states but they are free from them, and unaware of the happenings.
Time does not mean any worth for them nothing can prevent them from the command of Allah. They go straightforward with the command of Allah.
They walk modestly before the greatness of Allah.
They do not care anything but Allah.
Their hearts beat with the fear of being away from the mercy of Allah and His separation.
You think that their hearts are beaten with the whip of being far from Allah and His blessings.
The real follower of the Path of Allah receives Divine Light as his self serves in the path of Allah.
His heart is bright with love and affection.
His heart is opened with the Divine Light of Gnosis.
We can also explain the signs of these great people as follows:
Their essence flies with desire and longing and their exterior flies with God in the path of Allah. Their exterior becomes with God in the Path of Allah.
These great people who know how to wait in this path are very modest and kind-hearted. They turned towards their Lord (Sultan) with all their manners. They do not praise anybody except the Person of God in their inclination. As the intimacy of the Lord of the Universe encompasses them very much, they abandon people and turn to God, trust in Him and abide in Him. In this state of them, they do not even turn back and glance at people.
They cannot open their hearts to others. Their words are as if coming from the Heaven. Their knowledge is given to them by God.
They have high goals.
They are fed from the Spiritual World.
The Path of Fate is open and bright for them.
They feel unity in every being.
All their desires are based on the Shadow of God.
They thank God secretly and openly so that they do not dive into the march of unbelief.
They remember Allah verbally and with their heart every instant and continuously so that they do not forget Him.
A wise person knows that his God sees and knows him in all aspects.
He also knows that neither his vision nor any state of him can be useful under the sword of the Greatness of God.
The great person sees himself nothing under the Omnipotence of God. He spends his time diving into the sea of blessing of Allah and meanwhile all the other loves melt away except His love.
These great people continue to be the servant of Allah. They devote themselves to God but they do not exaggerate it. They are busy with God and they forget everybody except Him in their hearts while worshipping.
These great people become very merciful when they see the believers (109)
When they are observed, they are seen in sorrow all the time. These states of them last until they die. Then, they reach the mercy and consent of Allah.” (110)
(109) See the Glorious Verse Al-Fath, 29
(110) See “Onların Alemi” 25th hadith, by Sayyid Ahmed al Rufai, trans. by A. Akçiçek, Büşra Publ. 1994-İstanbul
THE REALITY OF THE VERSE “IYYAKE NA’BÜDÜ VE IYYAKE NESTEIN”
The correct explanation of this verse is: “We worship You and We implore Your favour and help”. But, the commentators interpret it as: “You alone (only) we turn for help”. The word “alone” which is said in the beginning of the verse “You alone we worship” is in order to confirm it because it is reported in hundreds of the verses in the Koran that there is no other god except Allah. “Fa’lem ennehu La ilahe illallah-Know that there is no god but Allah.” (Muhammad, 19)
Yet, there is no such a verse that the believers do not get any help from other people, just on the contrary, it is advised that the believers should help each other and they will be a guardian of each other.
The pagans used to worship the idols which were not alive and they would have asked for help from them as if they heard them or they were alive and had a power. For this reason, Allah says: “The idols which you deify besides Him are not able to do you a favor nor can they do any harm, then why do you call them? Oh, the heedless!” (Al-Isra, 56) But the living beings can both harm and benefit you.
In addition to this, in the verse “iyyake nestein” our Lord used the name: “Ya Müstean-whose aid (help) is implored”, “istiane means to ask for help (invocation), inayet means favour (grace of God)” but not “Ya Nesir-the one who helps: Nasır”
Allah asks for help from His Faithful slaves to help Him saying: “Kunu ensarullah-Be God’s helpers” (Saff, 14). A person who helps Allah will certainly help animals and plants too. Here, to help Allah means to help the Prophet. He who helps the Prophet helps other people too. If we understand the meaning of the verse “We implore help from You” as in the absolute meaning of “We implore help only from You”, which is impossible and absurd, then, the Muslims who ask for help from other people besides Allah become a polytheist. In this situation, hospitals must be closed, social aid institutions must be abolished, briefly, “Esbaba Tevessül-Recorsing the circumstances” should be forgotten, which means ending the practical life. Living beings may be in difficulty and they may also help each other.
“Ve emmes saile fela tenhar- Do not refuse (chide away) those who ask for help.” (Duha, 10)
As you see, in this verse, there is a person who seeks help and there is also a help for those who want.
And also: “Let the rich people and the virtuous among you give their gifts to those who do not have.” (Al-Nur, 22)
Therefore, the virtuous give enlightment from their virtue and the rich help them giving alms, charity and taxes. If there is “help”, there will be someone, who asks for help and whose help is implored.
Other sayings such as: “The dead and the grave stones are being asked for help” are actually said in order to annoy Muslims. Every Muslim knows that Allah is the Sole “One” and they also know that there are dead bodies in graves but Spirit is alive and it is the Decree of Allah and it never dies. It is never asked for help from the dead beings foolishly.
A believer knows his religion with the Divine Light of faith and his intuition although he does not know how to read and write and the believers should not be called as “ignorant or heedless”. Allah calls the unbelievers as heedless.
“Those who read even one million books are like a donkey laden with books.” (Jumah, 5)
The 90 percent of the Companions of the Prophet did not know how to write and read and our Prophet was also illiterate, but he was the Teacher of the Universe and the Sultan of the Knowledge of Allah (İlm-i Ledun). The friends of the Prophet knew God although they were illiterate. They were very faithful and pious. They were not ignorant or heedless. Then, knowledge is gained through conversation by hearing it but certainly not through reading books. The proof of this is the Companions of the Prophet and illiterate Muslim Saints.
The verse, which they show as a proof of the accusation of worshipping other gods: “We worship idols only that they bring us nearer to God” (Zumar, 3) in fact has the following subtleties of thought:
According to the polytheists, carved stones, idols, symbols (gods and goddesses) existed themselves like Allah and they had a power, a force and an authority of their own to rule besides Allah and they were independent and also the partners of Allah. They were near Allah and in charge of the administration of nature and they had a share in property and in disposal and each of them had a different task such as: the god of rain, the god of blessing, the god of the good and bad, the god of the Earth, the god of the Sky and god of wrath etc... These gods were free in their decisions but they could also discuss with Allah and the greatest god was Allah. The polytheists would not deny Allah but they would deny the next world and spiritualism.
“If you ask who has created the Earth and the Heavens, they will reply ‘Allah’.” (Mü’minun, 86-87) They did not believe in metaphysical world. They were the materialists who denied the metaphysical world and the next world. Then, in order to call a person a polytheist, he must deny the Next World. Allah says: “The polytheists are those who give no alms and disbelieve in the life to come” (Fussilat, 6-7)
What we have explained so far is about obvious polytheism, the other kind is secret polytheism like hypocrisy. Hypocrisy is a formal piety, which means performing religious duties such as: ritual prayer, fasting etc. to show off. Hypocrisy is extreme insincerity.
Thus; firstly, polytheism must be known so well that unity can be learnt. Polytheism means accepting those false gods as eternal beings like Allah and approving their partnership to Allah in the management and disposal of nature.
Allah informed in the Koran several times that such things were impossible; and the absurd sayings have no scientific values and they were the suppositions of the polytheists. He commands in the Koran: “But conjecture (supposition) is in no way a substitute for truth, do not follow conjecture.” (Yunus, 36) There is no God but Allah and these false gods have no relation with Allah.
Muslims do not define the Prophets and Saints in this way. They know that the Apostles and Saints are the Friends and Messengers of Allah. These personalities are able to speak with Allah and they have a relation with Him. The false gods, which the polytheists accept as the partners of Allah and as eternal beings, have no relation with Him so they are not able to bring them near Allah.
Again, the Muslims do not think that the Prophets and Saints have an independent knowledge, power and wisdom; they believe that they are also the servants and creatures of Allah. They know that whatever they have and all the things belong to Allah. They love, respect and serve them for the sake of Allah. They believe and say that they will help and intercede with the permission of Allah and all the power, knowledge, beauty, virtue in everybody and everything come from Allah. Then why should we not say: “With the permission of God! Intercede us the Prophet of Allah, help us the Kings of Sanctity Aliyel Murtaza and all the other Prophets and Saints of Allah. Help! Help! Help with the permission of Allah, Huuu O the Friend!”
Allah has a personal, top mechanism and He has also established a hierarchical order in the bottom ranks as understood in the verses “Refiüdderecat - the Highest degree is Allah” (Mümin, 15) and “Knowledge is bestowed on whom We will by degrees.” (Yusuf, 76) There are some Holy Spirits and the Angels whom Allah exalted high ranks as mentioned in the sura (chapter) of Mujadala: verse, 11.
There is also a state hierarchy in property. They all act with the permission and the will of Allah. The knowledge, power and decision existed in all of them belong to Allah. The essence of existence is the infinite, eternal, sole existence of Allah who is Pure and Divine Light. He is the source of everything. He has a management and disposal on the Earth and in the Heavens. He administrates all the actions through Prophets and Saints (Walis) who bear the Holy Spirit and the Angels, mainly with Gabriel and with the high officials in the world. This is the Divine System Allah has established. With the permission of Allah, one can require help from the Prophets and Saints and from the high officials of the state.
Muslims should not be insulted for their love and respect for the Prophets saying: “You kissed the hand of the Prophet and Saint and you became a polytheist or you respected a Scholar and now you have become an unbeliever”. He who does not show respect to Adam is satan. Allah sent it away in disgrace and cursed it. He who knows that the real existence and the source of all things is Allah is a monotheist (muvahhid: Unitarian, unifier). The real entity-existence is Divine Light. He is infinite and limitless. He has no sides. Since two unlimited beings cannot exist, the Absolute Existence is one.
The Saints (Walis) and Governors are able to help with the permission of Him. Nobody has an independent power except Allah. “La kuvvete illa billah-There is no strength except Allah.” (Kahf, 39) The source of strength is Allah. Allah is the objective, others are mediators. Objectives cannot be reached and benefited without an intermediary and mediators. Allah is the Lord, the Master and the God. Everything and everybody, except Him, is a slave, a servant and in need of Him. Allah has encompassed all things. “Ela innehu bi külli şey’in muhit-Allah has encompassed all things.” (Fussilet, 54)
As Allah has encompassed all things-either physical or spiritual, every being is imprisoned by Allah. He who is imprisoned is a slave or a servant. It is the same as the sea and foams. Although the origin of foam is sea, the sea creates them from itself and it encompasses them and imprison them. It will also annihilate the relative beings of the foam and bubbles in its great presence. Just like this, Allah, who is the absolute, eternal Presence, who is the Sole, Eternal Divine Light, has created everything from His own Presence. He has encompassed all of them and has made everything a slave, a servant of Him and then He will annihilate all things in His eternal Divine Light. He is the First and the Last; He is the Seen and Unseen. This is the Unity. There is no other eternal Existence except the Absolute being Allah; and nobody else has an individual power or Knowledge except Allah. Allah is the borderless, unlimited, infinite, absolute Existence and He is Sole for His eternity and infinity.
Allah is the source of power, strength, knowledge and beauty. “La mevcude illallah- There is no other existence except Allah.” In reality, “La kuvvete illa billah - There no strength except Allah”, “Ve hüve külli şey’in Alim - He takes cognizance of all things.” (Ahzab, 54)
“Ve alleme ademel esmae külleha - He taught Adam all His names.” (Al-Baqarah, 31)
He who exists is Allah and He is edgeless, infinite Divine light. He is sole for His infinity, as two borderless beings do not exist. Allah is the source of strength, knowledge, art and beauty. Allah has divided His property, knowledge, gnosis, science, art, administration and disposal by degrees and by Wisdom.
All of them belong to Allah in reality. This is the Unity.
Accepting the false gods of the polytheists as an individual power and eternal beings and qualifying or defining them as Allah and saying that Allah is great and others are small gods and thinking about a company consisted of gods means to attribute partnership to Allah and this is “polytheism”.
It is repeated in the Koran and in the Holy Traditions several times that Allah has created the inner and outer worlds from Himself and from his own Divine Light and He is eternal in the past and eternal in the future. He is Dominating, Wise and Absolute Administrator who sees, hears and speaks. He has established high and low ranks and He administrates them by means of Spirits, Angels, Apostles and Saints and then the Kings and the Leaders of the countries and everything is done with His permission, so He is the Absolute Source of all things.
Yes, “Külli şey’in sebaba - Everything has a reason.” (Al-Kahf, 84)
Allah performs His tasks, punishes and gives rewards through Spirits, Angels, Saints, Kings and Governors. Our duty is to respect, love and serve the Prophets and Saints. (Maidah, 35)
The Prophets and Saints are under the Mercy, Blessing, Guidance, Justice and Compassion attributes of Allah but; the Kings and the Emperors are under the Wrath, Might and Rage attributes of Allah.
As it is seen, Allah has two systems: one of them is Prophetic, the other is Royal. Since most people do not want the Prophetic System or they are not deserved it, they bring the Wrathful Royal System. Although social democracy is not Prophetic-Islamic, it is the closest system as it defends the social equity, human freedom and human rights. “Allah is just, yet most men do not believe.” (Rad, 1)
There are similar, clear verses in the Koran concerning this. Justice is to give horses grass, cats meat. The opposite is cruelty. Allah also behaves in this way. He appoints the administrators according to the desire of majority. Society is the body; administrator is the head. Administrator is either just or cruel. When non-democratic countries are observed, it is seen that their citizens do not want freedom, human rights and individual rights. Most people of these countries want their dictators or kings to give them bread. Their aim is to be rich and to get benefits from them by flattering their kings and dictators. They would like to lead a luxurious life style in this world, which is the desire of their self. They are not interested in freedom and human rights. What they want is the life of this world and the riches of this world. It is also seen that the majority of those societies are not conscious of these humanistic values written above such as freedom, equity and human rights. They only want to satisfy their carnal desires. They are the ones whom Allah described in the Koran as: “Velem yürid illel hayated dünya - They do not want anything except the life of this world.” (Ibrahim, 3) Therefore, they neither want the Republican System of which the Prophet and the Four Caliphs applied that depends on social equity and democracy, nor the social democracy and democratic republican system. The majority of these communities want Monarchy, dictatorship and kingdom, which is an oppressive system, if they did not want it, their rulers: dictators, kings, sultans would soon lose control over them. The last example of this is Chavushesku-the dictator of Romania. When his people refused him, he was overthrown in spite of his cruelty.
The false monotheist Muslims, who think that showing respect and love towards the Prophets and Saints of Allah and imploring help from them is polytheism, should not request anything from the rich and kings then. They should not go to the doctor for remedy when they are ill, they should get all their needs from Allah himself, otherwise; they will become a polytheist.
Accepting the reason in normal life as polytheism and misinterpreting the verse “We want help only from You” is to spoil the running order of humanity and to confuse their minds. Then, you should either say: “Ve iza meridtü fehüve yeşfin - When I am ill, Allah restores me.” (Al-Shuara, 80) as Abraham A.S. said, who was the friend and the Saint of Allah, whose spirit joined with Allah, or all the patients should be a doctor themselves and all the needy people should become a king or a rich person, because these people do not need anybody except Allah. Both of them reached the highest point: one of them spiritually, the other one physically.
Thus, everybody is free to act in the way he likes. He can either love, respect and serve a Prophet or a Saint in order to benefit from their Divine Light and Divine Knowledge or else he can serve the cruel kings, rich people and mighty people of this world to get worldly riches. Who is a believer, who is a polytheist will certainly be obvious then.
The great monotheist Fuzuli says:
“The King of Property gives gold and silver to the People of Service.
But the most beneficial is to serve the Prophets and Saints.
The Rank of Martyrdom (to see Allah) is the result of this.”
The polytheists first of all symbolized their desires and wishes and they made stone idols, they worshipped their gods and implored their help same as the Christians converted Allah to Jesus and Mary and then they bowed down in front of them and begged for help after making their stone and iron statues as if they could hear them. Furthermore, in Vatican, the feet of the Marble Statue of Mother Mary became eroded and smooth while kissing them. Wherever they found two pieces of stick and an iron bar, they made a cross and hung it everywhere as well as on their necks and they tied it crosswise. First, they made the Spirit a body; and then made the body smaller using two pieces of sticks and turned the Great Jesus rubbish.
As for this, we refuse imploring help from non-living beings and worshipping false gods saying in the Sura of Fatiha: “We worship You and we turn to You for help”. We expect intercession from the Gnostics who know Allah and from the martyrs who see Allah with the permission of Allah. This is also confirmed by the Koran as: “Nahnü Evliyaüküm-We are your Guardians.” (Fussilet, 31) (Zukhruf, 86) According to these verses, the Angels are also the Guardians of the believers.
Angels help the people. The Supreme Spirit our Prophet, who is the Universal Spirit, and his heirs Hz. Ali, Hz. Hasan, Hz. Husayn, Hz. Abubaqr and other Muslim Saints are our intercessors and helpers. Our Prophet says: “My intercession- my help is for those of my community who committed grave sins.”
In Arabic Grammar, “iyya” means: “belonging, concerning, reserved for”..; “Innema-ennema” means: “only-merely”; “Iyyake” means: “to you”: “iyyaye” means: “to me”; “iyyahu” means “to Him”. It may be approvable to interpret “İyyake na’büdü” as “We worship only to you” because in the Koran, in hundreds of verses, it is stated that “There is no god except Allah”. “Allah is one God and He is Absolute” (Nahl, 22). But, in the verse: “iyyake nestain”, it is not proper to use “only” as we have explained above. Our proof is the verse: “With the permission of Allah-Biiznillah, biiznihi”
The Spirits of the Prophets, Saints and Martyrs are alive. The Holy Spirits, who are the Decree of Allah, do not die. They are near Allah and they help whomever they want or whoever wants.
“The spirits of the sinners are at dark tunnels (Barzah), the Spirits of the righteous are in the Presence of Allah.” (Qamar, 55)
Thinking or saying opposite to this means to disturb Muslims, to plot mischief and it is demagoguery. This also insults the Prophets, Saints, Martyrs and Angels. He who insults them attempts to insult Allah and as a result, he becomes very rude and despicable like satan. Those are actually the opponents of spirituality and they are materialist people. They say you can get help only from Allah and then they flatter the rich and the managers. They even try to make Paradise physical by changing the metaphorical meaning in the Koran.
The adherents, followers of the spiritual path of Allah respect and love their teachers and their masters. If they are alive, they exalt them, praise them, kiss their hands and serve them because Allah cannot be known and the path of Allah cannot be learnt without them. “The Perfect Human (Man) is a deputy, a mirror and heir of Allah.” (Al-Baqarah, 30) If they died, they turn themselves to their great spirits and implore help from them in order to be saved from the darkness of ignorance and carnal desires. They request knowledge, wisdom, love and prosperity from their Spirits.
As it is known and as a rule of dialectic: the weak are always in need of the Powerful. Thus, he respects Him and prostrates before Him. If not, he is suppressed. Beyond this, it is only sophistry.
It is the same in the hierarchical orders of Allah both in physical and spiritual; the Seen and unseen; the Inner and outer Worlds of Him. Whoever rebels it, whoever is against to it is punished and tortured. There are mischief- makers who want to break peace both in this world and in the spiritual world. They pretend to be religious; but they rebel the hierarchical order of Allah (to reach the Perfect Man and Allah) (Tawbah, 34) “Many of the clerics and monks who defraud men of their possessions and debar from the Path of Allah”, “They are the most dangerous, they seem like Mullahs but in fact, they are materialists and selfish” (Maryam, 69). “Their desire is for a luxurious life and could do all flattery things for this. They try to change religion for their worldly benefits.” (Al-Baqarah, 86). They are the majority of Mullahs, monks and clerics. They are called as “Ribbiyyün” in the Koran.
Allah says: “They fight against the Prophets and the Perfect men.” (Al-i İmran, 146) Unfortunately, I consider only a few of them who are good free from this.
May Allah protect Muslims and humanity from those and from the dangerous ones. May He bestow on us the love, the intercession, the help and the favor of the Prophets, Saints, Martyrs and the scholar Gnostic Friends of God. Amen!
If we give a short account of the subject; it is said that for some of the religious sects, which are the extensions of Ibn-i Hazım and Ibn-i Taymiyya that make the religious precepts of Umayyads stricter, excluding the People of Sunnat: “Those who implore help-intercession from the Prophet, the Prophets, Saints and the people who visit the graves, who became the friends of the Prophets and Saints; who sacrifice sheep, are polytheists and idolaters.” In this case, we Muslims, who are 1,5 billion Sunni, Alawi, and Shiites as well as our 1400 years old ancestors are all polytheists, idolaters and unbelievers. Then; those, whose number is not more than 200-300 thousands, whose half is a certain tribe or bureaucrats, are Muslims and monotheists. This is an unfair separation. The majority of people who are Sunni, Alawi and Shiites are Muslims.
In addition to this, let the people who often say: “Nobody can enter between Allah and His servant” separate the worldly affairs from religious affairs and accept democracy and approve of the system of the elections of the Four Caliphs! Do they not ever notice the prayer at the funeral? Funeral prayer is very important. We put the corpse directly in front of us and perform our prayer accepting it as our Kıble (the direction to which a Muslim turns for worship). This is same as the Angels prostrated before Adam accepting Adam as Kıble because he is in front of us and we turn our face towards him. “Turn your face towards the Holy Mosque.” (Al-Baqarah, 144) The worship is for Allah but Adam and the person who died is a Kıble, he is exalted by funeral prayer. This is a respect and an exaltation as Adam and his sons are exalted. “I taught Adam all My names.” (Al-Baqarah, 31) “Adam and his sons who are Perfect Man are the Caliphs of Allah.” (Al-Baqarah, 30) “Man is exalted.” (Tin, 4)
In this situation, are the Angels polytheist for prostrating before Adam? And do the Muslims become a polytheist for their prayer before a dead person? Are the parents and brothers of Joseph who prostrated before Joseph polytheists, idolaters?
In fact, the are already against the Perfect Men, the Four Great Caliphs, four religious leaders of the four sects, Maturidiye, Ashariye, Shiites and Sufism. According to those materialists who deny spirituality, who make the metaphysical world physical by their interpretations, who are called as “Ribbiyinler” who are the majority of the scholastic theologians who support only Allah, there is no Divine World and Divine Paradise. Paradise is physical just like the world for them. However, the world of spirits, Angels and Paradise are from the Divine Light-from Decree and Decree is from the Speech attribute of Allah and it is Divine Light. The Koran is also the Decree of Allah. It is the Speech of Allah and Divine Light. Decree, the word of Allah is not physical, material and created. What we have all said is from the Divine Attribute of the Person of Allah. They are the world of Melequt and Jeberut.
There is nobody who enters between Allah and His slave. The intermediary is Knowledge and the guidance is with Knowledge. The true guide is Knowledge but Knowledge cannot direct by itself.
A wise person who knows this Knowledge is necessary. The mediator is a Scholar-a Wise person. As it is known, the Knowledge in Islam is divided into two categories as Seen and Unseen and the Knowledge of the Canonical Jurisprudence and the Knowledge of faith. The Canonical Jurisprudence (Islamic Law) belongs to the Exterior Knowledge. The Knowledge of faith is grouped in three kinds as Philosophy, Theology and Sufism. They are taught by their wise teachers and scholars. Guidance is with Knowledge and it is performed by means of wise, Gnostic and scholar teachers. There is no other method of it.
These wise personalities called as “Fakih, Philosopher, and Theological Scholar” in Madrasas and “Master, Gnostic, Sheikh, Father, Pir, Grandfather” in Tekkes. As known, Sufism was emerged from Tekkes but not from Madrasas. You cannot show any Sufi who is not a Religious Teacher of a Tariqat or who does not belong to a Tariqat. The sayings such as “There is no intermediary, the guide is Knowledge” should not be misinterpreted. Knowledge or Gnosis cannot do the duty of guidance without the intermediation of a Scholar or Gnosis. Objectives cannot be reached without an intermediary. Without a guide, it is not possible to reach physical or spiritual aims. The intermediary is only a guide. The Prophets and Saints are wise, scholar persons. They act as a guide of the true Path and a guide of reaching Allah. The objectives are always the aim but aims are not reached without means (intermediary).
You cannot benefit the electric light without an electric bulb. In the Koran, it is said: “Errahmanü fes’el bihi habira - Ask the Merciful from those who know Him.” (Furqan, 59) Then, it is commanded that we should ask the Merciful from the Scholars, the Wise who know the Merciful. Knowledge-Action... Scholar-Actor. The Knowledge-the Koran, The Scholar, actor-Muhammad (A.S.) He is the Perfect Man. In order to learn the Koran, a Perfect Man-Hz. Muhammad (A.S.) is necessary. There is no other way of learning it. In this case, we should love and respect the guide to thank him. If a person does not feel love, respect and regard for his teacher-instructor, father-guide, he does not love Allah. Such a person cannot be called as a Muslim or as a human being because it is the work of Satan not to love human who is honorable and great while he pretends to be exalting only Allah. The cursed satan exalted Allah but disregarded Adam and did not love him, it was proud of itself so as a result Satan was cursed and stoned to death.
In Christianity, Martin Luther also had taken this opinion of refusing intermediary from Ibn-i Hazım, who was the religious interpreter of the Umayyad and the founder of the Zahiriye Sect, and he established the Protestantism by opposing the Pope. His supporters increased not more than 50 million in 500 years. Today, 90 percent of Christians are Catholics or Orthodox. The Lutherans are always in minority and known as the people who exceeded (went beyond what is usual or proper) among the Muslims and Christians. The majority does not regard such crazy ideas. It is obvious in practice.
It is a sign of remembrance, respect, love and fidelity to protect the graves of the Prophets and Saints, who are great scholars and Gnostics and to enliven their ideas by symbols. Nobody worships graves. Every Muslim knows Allah one. None of the Muslims wants anything from the dead bodied, corpses, from the stones and earth. They request help from the Decree and Spirit of Allah, which is alive and eternal. They implore intercession, favour and blessing and they know that this will come true with the permission of Allah. But, the polytheists implore help from the idols and false gods and they say that Allah did not create these false gods and they are eternal themselves like Allah and their power is from themselves and that Allah will not perish or annihilate them. That is to say, they know them eternal like Allah. They believe that their power exists spontaneously, Allah did not create them, He will not put an end to them and the knowledge in them is not given by Allah. They also believe that they exist with their independent powers. According to the polytheists, “Allah is the great, the others are small gods.” (En’am, 19) (Mü’minun, 117) You should know what polytheism is in order to know Oneness-Unity.
Brothers! Which Muslim insists that Allah has not created Adam, the Perfect Human and who says that their knowledge, power and blessing is not from Allah? Is there such a Muslim that he who respects the Prophets, Saints and implores blessing with the permission of Allah is called a polytheist? Every Muslim knows that Allah created the Prophets and Saints same as He created all things and Allah will put an end to their lives and the knowledge, power, blessing belong to Allah. Allah is the source of power and blessing. Everybody is the servant of Allah and the god is Allah. Allah is Sole. The Prophets and Saints are true (Haq). Every blessing and help is with the permission of Allah.
There are Prophets and Saints whom Allah has given permission for intercession and guidance or in one word; there are Perfect Men who have been drawn near Allah with their pure Spirits. Nobody wants anything from non-living beings. The Spirits of the Prophets and Saints are alive. The body dies. The Spirit is the Decree of Allah and he does not die. The sinful spirits are in dark places (barzah), but the pure spirits are in the presence of Allah. The following verse is very clear: “Innel müttekine fi cennatin ve neher-The spirits of the righteous are in the presence of Allah.” (Zumar, 55) The false gods of the polytheists are not near Allah. They do not exist so you cannot be drawn near them by worshipping them. The owners of the righteous spirits: the Prophets, the Saints are the friends of Allah and they are intercessors for mankind.
Moreover, in the Koran, it is advised and even commanded that: “Believers should make friends with believers.” (Anfal, 72) (Tawba, 71)
Then, do the believers not obey the order of the Koran by being a friend of the friends of Allah?
AHL AL BAYT (THE FAMILY OF THE PROPHET) AND İNSAN-I KAMİL (THE PERFECT MAN)
My brothers, I will explain to you some facts depending on the Koran, which I have been reading for forty years, the Holy Traditions (Hadiths), History and on the knowledge I have learnt from the inner world.
All the knowledge that I will convey to you with all my sincerity as a supporter of Ahl al Bayt and Shia-ı Muhammad Al-i Aba and as a Hanafi, who practices according to the Hanafi Jurisprudence, is reflecting the exact truth. Do never suspect it! (111) I have already written seven books and in these books, I proved the superiority of the Family of the Prophet which nobody can reach (all the other Prophets and Saints are included in this reality) their divinity and their innocence with their proofs depending on the Verses of the Koran and the Holy Sayings of the Prophet. However, I am explaining some matters now I have not explained openly in these books, as they were very high to be understood by everybody and in order not to cause any unnecessary arguments and offences.
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim (With the Name of God who is Compassionate and Merciful)
Allah, who is the Lord of the Universe, “breathed into the body of Adam from His Spirit” (Sad, 72). This truth is mentioned in the other verses of the Koran too. Allah, the Most High, made the Angels prostrate before His Divine- Holy Spirit and He made the person of Adam His Deputy. These subjects are written in the Sura of Baqhara. Adam is a corps, a symbol. Adam is the first man and he was created from the earth. His physical body was made of earth, but, what the angels prostrated before Adam is the breath which is the Pure, Divine Spirit of God. This holy and innocent Spirit is the Spirit of Allah.
The source of this spirit is the Supreme Spirit – the First Spirit. It is the Divine Breath of Allah, the Divine Light of the face of Allah. It is the First Light, the Word, the Decree and the Breath of Allah. The Light, the Word, the Decree, the Breath of Allah is Divine Light. It is just like the Sun, the sun of the inner World.
Spirit is the essence. Spirit is not matter. It is not created. The Decree, the Word, the Breath of Allah is the eternal attribute of the Eternal God. God has attributes but the attributes of God are also the Person of God same as the Sun and sunlight.
(111) I am a Hanefi but I cannot hide this truth because we are truthful.
The lights of the Sun on the walls are also the Sun itself in the Sky. However, it is not the whole Sun in the Sky; it is a manifestation, a vision and a sign of it. Yet, in any way or other, it is not another being apart from the Sun. It is not a second thing besides it. The Sun is a whole with the rays of it. The sun is one and nobody can say that there are two suns.
We cannot say that there are two different things as the Sun and Sunlight. When the Sun sets, it takes away its lights on the walls without leaving a bit of it. The sun is a whole with its lights. The sun is also divine Light. It is light.
Dawn is also a manifestation and an appearance of the Sun. However, it is not a second being separated from the Sun. It is a color, a manifestation, which the sun sends before it rises. Dawn is a color, a vision of the Sun. It is the first manifestation of Allah in the first manifestation like dawn.
These are already explained in details in the books I have written so far. The Supreme Spirit, which is the origin, the essence of the Spirit in Adam is the First Manifestation, the first appearance of Allah, which is also the Pure Person of Allah. This great, enormous Spirit is the eternal attribute of Allah. It is also the source of all the Spirits. It is the Sun of the inner world. The first spirit which Allah the Most High says: “I breathed from My Spirit”, The Supreme Spirit is the Reality of Muhammad and Hz. Ali is also included in this Spirit.
The holy, original name of this Spirit is “Muhammad Ali”.
Muhammad Ali is Ahmed, Mahmud, Mustafa, Murtaza and Mujtaba. He is also Ya- Sin which means “Human- Man” and He is Sayyid- Master and he bears the rank of Shah (King).
The Spirit has the attribution of King (Shah). This is the first and greatest Spirit, which is the only beloved of Allah and the eternal attribute of Allah. This Spirit is divine- holy. It is the Holy Spirit of the pure Person. It is the universal Spirit, which is the Father- the source of all the spirits. It is the Holy father (Eb-i Mukaddes). The other spirits were separated from this spirit same as the Sun and the Stars:
There are two colours in this Spirit:
- One of them is green: Jamal and Marifat (Beauty and Knowledge)
- The other is red-like, the color of dawn: Jalal (Might) and Love
The Jalal of Allah is in love with Jamal and His Jalal protects His Jamal.
The Divine Light of beauty and Perfection is Muhammad Mustafa (S.A.W), the beloved of the Almighty;
The Divine Light of Jalal (Mighty) and Perfection is the Saint of Almighty, Imam-ı Aliyyel Murtaza (a.s. and k.v.).
There is one Divine Light and two different colors. The color of Jamal is green-the colour of grass- Muhammad (S.A.W).The colour of Jalal is the red colour of dawn. Ali (K.V.). Spirit-Divine Light is one; the colours are two.
The First Spirit, which consists of Muhammad-Ali, is only one Divine Light. The Spirits in Adam (A.S) and in his children are from the first, holy, exalted, sacred spirit, which Allah describes as “My Spirit”. (Sad, 72)
The holy tradition “He who knows himself (his self) knows his Lord” (112) is understood by means of this reality. It is possible to know the knowledge of “men araf”, to know one’s self and to know the Lord through this reality. There is no other way of learning it.
The Spirits and the Divine Lights is all the Prophets, Walis and men are from this Spirit called “Muhammad-Ali”. Mustafa-Mürtaza is like the Sun, all the other Prophets and Saints are like the Stars. The origin of these stars is also the Sun.
The spirits of the believers are from this First Spirit, Muhammad-Ali. They are from the First Spirit. The spirits in all the human beings are from this Spirit. However, the spirits of the unbelievers who commit grave sins become solid. The Divine Light turns into fire.
The Divine Light of Muhammad and the Secret of Ali mentioned above is this First Spirit. This is also called “Muhammad-Ali Febi” which means Muhammad-Ali is only one Spirit-Divine Light. Yet, the bodies of Muhammad (S.A.W.) and Hz. Ali (K.V.) are like the body of Adam as it is in all the children of Adam. The origin of physical body is earth. It is not spirit. It is created. Bodies die and become earth but spirit does not die.
Spirit is the Eternal Attribute of Allah. It is the Word of Allah, His Breath, His Divine Breath. It is His Decree and the Divine Light of His Face. The bodies have no structural relation with the Person and Attribute of Allah.
Spirit is Divine, for this reason, physical body-corpse cannot be Spirit-Allah.
(112) See Sırrül Esrar, p.31
When we call the Spirit of Muhammad-Ali and the Spirit of Adam, the Attribute of Allah and His attribution is also His Person, we refer to their spirits which is one, eternal Divine Light but not to their bodies. We say that the Attribute is the Person of Allah in reality, not in identity... but in reality.
We prostrate before Spirit but not before their bodies, pictures or names. We prostrate before the first, great and glorious spirit of Allah. We prostrate before Muhammad-Ali and we accept the body of Adam (the Perfect Man) as a Kıble. The Angels have also prostrated before this spirit or else they would be a polytheist.
“I neither fit into the Earth nor the Heavens but I am in the heart of the believer.” (A Holy Tradition) (Kırk Hadis by Sadreddin Konevi, p.82 trans. by Harun Ünal, Vahdet Publ. 1984 Ist; Ajluni Keşfü’l Hafa vol.2, p.195)
We love the light in the bulb but not the glass of it. We like the bulb as well because it is a container for the light. The bulb that gives light is certainly much better than a dark bulb (a dark heart). Then, the body of the Perfect Man is valuable same as an alight bulb.
One alight (shining) bulb is much better than a thousand of dark bulbs. A good heart is better than a thousand of evil hearts. If there is no bulb, the light cannot appear. A sound bulb is also valuable for us.
We prostrate before the Perfect Man who has this good and sound heart and the Spirit that shines in this heart, which is the First and the only Spirit of Allah, the Pure Spirit, the Holy Spirit of Muhammad-Ali. We love Him and we like their pure bodies because of this fact.
We call the Perfect Human who bears this Spirit and who is the object to the Divine Light of Muhammad and the Secret of Ali as: “Pir, Murshid, Wali, Sheikh, Baba, Dede, Teacher, Prophet, Apostle”. We prostrate before their spirits and sanctify them. (113)
We look at their pictures and photographs in order to remember them and to show our love. We want our love to increase for them. We know that their photographs and pictures were drawn by description and they do not reflect them completely.
We are not polytheists. We do not worship pictures, bodies or names.
(113) The Spirits and the Divine Lights of the Prophets and Apostles, who lived before the Prophet Muhammad Mustafa and Hz. Ali, are the spirits which were breathed from the First Spirit-The Supreme Spirit. All the Prophets and Saints means the First Spirit Muhammad-Ali.
We prostrate before the essence, the essence of our essence, who is Shah Muhammad-Ali, the Pure Spirit and the Attribute of Allah. We hold Allah and the Spirit of Allah, which is the attribute of Allah. The Supreme-Great Spirit is Muhammad-Ali. This is the string (rope) of Allah. It is His original Light, His Word, His Decree. We prostrate before the person in whom we see this Spirit, the Divine Light of Muhammad-Ali. We respect him and love him.
“He who loves My Ahl al Bayt, loves Me; He who loves Me loves Allah.” (114)
The highest meaning of worship is love. This is a Divine Love. This love is for the righteous (115) who are near to God. They are first of all; the Prophet of Allah, Hz. Imam-ı Ali, Fatma, Hasan, Husayn and the other Apostles and Saints who are close to them They are the great personalities of the Companions of the Prophet.
The verse in the Koran also says: “Those who love you must follow you (swear fealty to you)!” It means: those who love Allah must love you because in order to swear fealty to a person, you should love him first.
In the Koran:
“Say: If you love God, love Me and follow Me when they say “we love Allah”-Kul inküntüm tühibbunellahe fettebiuni yuhbibkümullah veyeğfirleküm zünübeküm.” (The Imrans, 31)
Nobody swears fealty to whom he does not love. He does not obey him or follow him. The believers swore fealty to the Prophet of Allah (S.A.W.) for their love to him. Those who did not love Him swore allegiance to the Prophet hypocritically for their fear or for their worldly benefits when the Prophet became powerful same as the reluctant allegiance of the Sufyani Umayyads on the Day of the Conquest of Mecca.
Thus, the Holy Verse of the Koran should be interpreted as: “Say, O Muhammad! He who loves Allah, loves Muhammad. He who does not love you, does not love Allah.”
“Yuhbibkümullah veyeğfirleküm zünübeküm-If you love me, Allah will also love you and He will forgive your sins.” (Al-i Imran, 31)
This is a Divine Love. He who loves Spirit loves Allah.
(114) Ahmed b. Hanbel, Müsned, vol.2, p.288
Ibn Mâce, Sünen, vol.1, p.512
Camiussağır, vol.2, p.58, trans. by Abdullah Aydın, Istanbul, 1977
(115) See Shura, 23
This is not a mortal, physical love but it is to love the attribute (Spirit) of Allah.
“My (Ahl al Bayt) Family is from me and I am from Ehl-i Beyt (Ahl al Bayt) - Ehl-i Beyt-i minni ve ene minhüm.” (116)
“Aliyyen minni ve ene minhü-Ali is from and I am from Ali.” (117)
Our Prophet (A.S.W.) had not said these honorable sayings for others but he said them only for Imam-ı Ali.
He made Ahl al Bayt and Ali “Himself” and He made Himself “Ali and Ahl al Bayt”. This is always true.
He said for the believers:
“Ene minallahi ve’l mü’minune minni - I am from Allah and the believers are from Me.” (118) He had not said: “I am from the believers” How could he say it? The stars are from the Sun but how can the Sun be from the Stars? The Sun is the master, the source, the Lord of the Stars. The stars are the servants, lovers and prisoners of the Sun.
“Küntü men mevlahü fealiyyen mevlah-Of whom I am the master, Ali is also his Master.” (119)
The Prophet (A.S.W.) said this holy saying for none of the Prophets, Companions and even for a Saint. This is a certain tradition. “Of whom I am the Master, Ali is also his Master”. All the holy traditions and the books of traditions can be searched. This tradition is only about Hz. Ali. He made Hz. Ali Himself. Then, our Most High Prophet (S.A.W.) is the Master of all the Prophets, Companions, Saint and all the believers. Hz. Ali is the Master of all of us.
The reason why alms and charity are forbidden to be given to the Prophet and the Ahl al Bayt depends on this secrecy. That is to say: The Master does not accept alms and charity.
(116) See 1001 Hadith by, Semseddin Yeşil, 1983, İstanbul
(117) From Bera b. Azib, Thirmizi
Tac Trans. Bekir Sadak, vol.3, p.620
From Imran b. Husayn “Hz. Peygamberin Dört Halifesi” trans. by A. Fikri Yavuz, p.276, Sönmez Publ. İst. 1981
(118) Sirrül Esrar by Sayyid Abdülkadir Geylani, p.p.20-75
Alms and charity are the dirt of property. The Master is Pure. He does not accept the dirt. All the people are the recipients of alms except Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husayn (also the Hashim Family is not alms beneficiary). But, first of all Ahl al Bayt, because Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayin are Masters. Masters do not receive, they give.
For this reason “humus” (one fifth of the property) is given to Ahla-l Bait with the command of Allah. Ahl al Bayt has a share in Beyt ül Mal (the Public Treasury) and this is a right, confirmed by a Divine Command. (120) Shariat (Canonical Jurisprudence) has already accepted it in this way. Allah, the Most High says:
“İnnema yüridullahu liyüzhibe ankümürricse Ehle-l beyti veyütehhireküm tethira-I have willed to purify Ahl al Bayt.” (Ahzab, 33)
When this verse was revealed, the Prophet of Allah said: “Ahl al Bayt are Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn” Oh Lord! They are my Family.” (121)
It is certain with hadiths that Ahl al Bayt are our Masters Hz. Ali, Hz. Fatima, Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn. The Prophet of Allah is the Master and the alms can not be given to them. The Family of the Prophet (Ahl al Bayt) is the Master and The Master never accepts the property of charity.
Hz. Muhammad is from Allah and the Believers are from Hz. Muhammad. Ahl al Bayt and Hz. Ali (k.v.) are Muhammad and Muhammad is Ahl al Bayt.
Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husayn is only one Divine Light. The Divine Light of Muhammad - Ali (Ahl-al Bayt) is the First Spirit of Allah. The Holy Spirit, which is the Pure Divine Light, is the eternal attribute of Allah. It is the Pure Attribute of Allah.
(119) from Hz. Enes, Zeyd b. Erkam, Cerir, Habeshi and Ammar: Ahmed b. Hanbel, Müsned, vol.4, p.281
Suyuti, Camiul Kebir, “Hz. Peygamberin Dilinden Dört Halifesi” trans. by. A.Fikri Yavuz, pp.275-278 Sönmez Publ. İst.1981
(120) “The spoils taken from the town-dwellers (from the people of the countries which are conquered) are assigned by God to His Apostle and his kinsfolk (the Sons of Hashim and Abdülmuttalib who are the relatives of Muhammad) to orphans, to the poor and to the traveler of the rich among you.” (Hasr, 7-8)
(121) from our Mother Aisha; Müslim, Sahih, vol, 7, p.130 from our Mother Ümmü Seleme, Thirmizi, Sünen, vol.5, p. 663.
The attribute of Allah is eternal like His Pure Person. Person-Attribute are the same. They are one, sole Divine Light but in reality not in identity. For instance: The Sunlight. We see the Sun itself but it is not particularly the whole sun. The Sun is in the Sky and very big. The attribute of Allah is Himself in reality, but His Person is eternal and infinite. If there is no Person, there is no attribute. If there is no attribute, His Person is not known.
“The waves pounded and two colors emerged on the sea,
When the expert who knows all the identities saw them,
He called one of them: the Divine Light of Muhammad,
the other: the Divine Light of Ali..”
Muhammad- Ali is the Koran and the Furqan. Furqan is the Koran and He is in the Koran. The Kuran is Hz. Muhammad; the Furqan is Hz. Ali. For example, the Koran is the Sun and the Furqan is the Moon. It is like this in the visible world too. It is only one Divine Light in origin. The Koran and the Furqan is only one Divine Light. Therefore, Hz. Ali said during the Siffin Battle: “Ene Kuran-ı Natık-I’m the speaking Koran”. In reality the Koran and the Furqan (The Sun and the Moon) are only one Divine Light.
This glorious Divine Light of Muhammad-Ali has come to all the Prophets and it does continue to come to all the Perfect, righteous saints.
The “breath” in all the Prophets and Saints is this first, holy, sacred, pure Spirit of the Purest Person. It is His first manifestation, His first appearance, His first sign-just like the dawn of the Sun.
This process continues by means of the pious Perfect-Human-beings who have a pure and sound heart.
As long as the Universe exists, the Perfect Man will exist. It will be transferred from hand to hand, from heart to heart. If there are unripe grapes in a vineyard, there will also be ripe graves. It should be kept in mind that the grapes are formed from unripe grapes. There will be perfect people as well as immature people. The Perfect Man becomes from immature man.
“I came and left in the image of a man many times
Yet, there were only a few people who followed me.”
The above saying is the explanation of this reality.
What comes and leaves in each Apostle and Saint is Hz. Muhammad-Ali. (122) This is the Spirit of Muhammad-Ali and a sign-a manifestation from Him. They are the foams or waves from that Sea. The great Muslim saints are the waves.
Mawlana Jalaleddin-i Rumi says for Hz. Ali: “The First and the Last of the Universe was Ali.”
“Adam was a “Kıble”, what the Angels prostrated before was Ali. The High rank of the Prophet Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph, Zachariah, Aaron, Lot, Moses and Jesus, the son of Mary was Ali. Whenever I looked at the horizon, I saw the Divine Light of Ali.”
I advise you to read “Divan-ı Kebir” very carefully. (123)
And this holy Master, the Pure Spirit of Hz. Muhammad-Ali (Selevatullahi Aleyh ve Aleyhisselam) (124) suffered from mankind and their own people very much. They were not respected properly.
“Vema kaderullahe hakka kadrihi-Allah is not esteemed properly.” (En’am, 91) (Yâ-Sin, 30)
How could Allah-Muhammad-Ali and the Prophets who bear this Spirit be esteemed highly? But there are also some exceptions.
Yet, as they were a spiritual guide and blessing, they forgave and endured all the sufferings. But, those who love them very much cannot endure it, and they have difficulty in forgiving. The lovers cannot put up with what is done to the beloved, but the blessing, affection, mercy and the guidance of Ali-Muhammad is infinite. Their blessing, forgiveness and mercy surprise everybody. Whereas, they do not forgive the cruel and the denial as Allah does not forgive them. They obey the decision of Allah.
(122) In the inner world, Muhammad-Ali is only one Spirit-one Divine Light. In the visible world, Muhammad (S.A.W.) is an Apostle, Ali (k.v.) is a Saint (Wali). The Spirit-Divine Light is one but there are two bodies.
(123) See Mawlana Jalaluddun-i Rumi, “Divan-ı Kebir’den Seçme Şiirler”, Chapter, 274 Vol.2, M.E.B. Publ. İstanbul, 1961
“It was Ali, who existed until the foundations of the world was put into effect. It was Ali, who existed until the earth was pictured and the time came into being. It was Shah Ali, who was qualified as the Friend of God (Wali), who was the Sultan (the King) of the generosity, benevolence and mercy.
The Angels prostrated before Adam because of Ali. Adam was a “Kıble”, Ali was the one who was prostrated before. The Prophets: Adam, Sheet, Eyyup, Enoch, Joseph, Yunis, Hud, Moses, Jesus, Elyas, Salih, David were all Ali.
The brave heroic lion who did not smear his hands on the worldly riches as for the greediness of the self was Ali.
It was Ali, who was the discoverer of the mysteries of the Koran, who was mentioned in the verses of the Koran and whom the God highly praised his innocence.
That wise person, whose door’s earth was more valuable than the Sky of the Throne and who constantly prostrated before the God, was Ali. The honorable, dignified Shah (King), who didn’t stop and rest until the work reached a right and proper condition in Islam, was Ali. The conqueror of the fortresses that grasped and opened the Gate of Haybar at one attempt was Ali.
Whenever I looked at the horizon, I saw that it was Ali who existed in every being for nearness. This cannot be a blasphemy; these are not the words of blasphemy.
Ali exists as the Universe exists and Ali existed while the Universe was coming into existence.
Whatever Shams of Tabriz showed from the open and secret mysteries was all Ali.”
(124) Muhammad means very high, very exalted and lofty Muhammad-Ali means highly praised and very exalted. Muhammad-Ali is the name of the First Spirit of Allah, who is the greatest, praised and exalted.
For this reason, it is said that the secrecy of Lâ Feta cannot be comprehended easily.
May Allah enable us and all the lovers of Ali to be happy Haydaris who benefit from the Divine Light of Ahmed and the secrecy of Ali!
May Allah salute Muhammad, May Allah salute Ali, Help us O Muhammad and please have Mercy on us O Ali!
“Lâ feta illâ Ali, Lâ seyfe illâ Zülfikar-There is no soldier like Ali and no sword like Zülfikar.” (125)
(125) See, “İslâm Tarihi, Hz. Muhammad ve Islâmiyet by M. Asım Köksal, vol.3, p.117
Sources: Ibn Ishak, Ibn Hişam, Sire vol.3, p.100, Taberi-Tarih vol.3, p.17, Ibn Esir, El Kâmil, vol.2, p.74
SOME COMMENTARY MATTERS
Was there a commentary of the Koran during the times of Muhammad and His Companions?
The warning of the Prophet: “Let him who tells lies about me prepare his place in the Hell”; and the sayings such as “Let him who tells comments on the Koran using his partial mind prepare his place in the Hell” as a continuation of the above statement to threaten those that speak about the Koran as it comes using his own mind. (Sünenu’t-Thirmizi, vol.5, p.109 Müsned, vol.1, p.269) The wise people who make contact with the Holy Spirit are exempted from this.
The Companions of the Prophet who were present during his conversation and learnt some knowledge from Him hesitated to comment on the Koran for fear that they might make a mistake in interpretation and they did not want to speak about this subject. The distinguished companions such as Abu Baqr, Omar, Abdullah b. Omar avoided making comments on the Koran. Once, Abu Baqr was asked the meaning of the 31st verse of the Sura of Abese, he said: “If I interpreted the Book of Allah according to my opinion or if I interpreted it though I did not know it, which world would carry me on and which sky would shade me?” (126)
Hz. Omar said: “Among these people I am not afraid of the person who hides his belief though he is a believer and the person who tells he is impious although he is a sinner, but I am afraid of those who recite the Koran and suit it to the religion and who interpret it with a wrong explanation.” (127)
Our dear Prophet would explain the necessary chapters of the Koran to his Companions and to the distinguished people around him when and where it was needed.
The Companions avoided making comments on the interpretation as the word “interpretation” was referred to Allah. When the commentary on the Koran was mentioned, it was understood that it was the direct explanation of Allah and His Prophet. It means that there must not be the possibility of fault in the commentary. It must be correct. Shortly, the interpretation was ascribed to Allah and His Prophet.
(126) Tefsiru’l Taberi: vol.1, p.78; Tefsir-ü Ibn Kesir, vol.1, p.99
(127) Itkan, vol.2, p.4 Tefsir ül Kâsım, vol.1, p.99
Some of the Companions such as Abdullah b. Mes’ud and Abdullah b. Abbas would recite the Suras and would interpret them. (These commentaries were in the forms of verses) We see that these two persons and the others who were famous for the commentary on the Koran were very cautious in interpreting expressing that they would say what they were informed about but they would not say anything about what they did not know. (128)
“The Companions would learn ten verses from the Prophet and would not continue the other verses unless they learnt the meanings of them scientifically and practically.” (129)
“It is certain that the Messenger of Allah explained most things from the meanings of the Koran to his companions as the sources of hadiths approved. Yet, he did not explain the whole Koran verse by verse in order because Allah the Most High assigned some meanings of the Koran to Himself, some of them were understood by the scholars and some were grasped by the Arabs as they were familiar with the language. Some of the verses are very clear to be understood by everybody. On this point, there may be little or more truth in the evidence brought up by conservatives or exaggerators. However, they exaggerated the matters and changed this event improperly. If we tell the truth, the Prophet neither interpreted the Koran very little, nor interpreted the whole Koran or the most parts of it as it was claimed.” (130)
At the beginning, the commentaries were based on the traditions as a branch of Hadith Studies. During the times of the Prophet and His companions, taking traditions not only covered comprehensive meanings, it was also tried to be narrated with a wide understanding including the traditions of the Prophet and His companions in order to be studied during the followers of the Prophet.
For instance, every city or region that was a center of Knowledge would get the traditions from the person who was the religious leader of that place such as: the People of Mecca from Ibn Abbas, the people of Madina from Ubeyy b. Ka’b, the people of Iraq from Ibn Mes’ud. (131)
(128) Tefsir-12, Prof. Dr. Ismail Cerrahoğlu, Doç. Dr. Şevki Saka, MEB Kitapları p.39, Eskişehir- 1992
(129) Tefsiru’t-Taberi, vol.1, p.80, Mukaddime fi usûli’t-Tefsir, p.5
(130) Tefsir-12, Prof. Dr. İsmail Cerrahoğlu, Doç. Dr. Şevki Saka, MEB Publ. P.52 Eskişehir-1992
(131) same book, p.64
Abdullah b. Abbas was the nephew of our Prophet (his uncle’s son). He was 10-14 years old when Our Prophet died. Meymune, who was one of our Prophet’s wives, was the aunt of Ibn Abbas. He spent his youth with the Family of the Prophet and Companions.
According to the information from Ahmed b. Hanbel, the Knowledge of Ibn Abbas depended on three authorities. They were Hz. Ali, Omar and Ubeyy. (132)
In addition, Ibn Abbas did not prepare a booklet of the interpretations of some verses he had taken from Hz. Prophet, from the Companions and using his independent interpretation. His students who followed him formed a booklet in the name of him including their personal knowledge and skills.
Imam Ghazzali said in his work called “Ihya-u Ulumi’ddin-Revivification of the Religious Sciences” that the Koran had some mysteries and they would be understood by only those who reached a high level in Arabic Sciences in Jurisprudence and in the Knowledge about the Universe and Human beings.
Ghazzali also said that people have different capacities to understand the Koran but the understanding of all the people would be correct if they did not exaggerate the meaning of it. There are some certain meanings of certain words at the beginning of the Chapters, which serve as a key to guide in order to solve the hidden mysteries and the knowledge of the Koran.
Muhammad Ghazzali says: “The Koran has an interior and an exterior. The interior includes the Knowledge of the Mysteries of the Koran” depending on mystical approach. (133)
Some of Imamiye do not accept the commentary with personal judgment or speculation (Re’y). According to them, the Prophet S.A.W. said: “The Koran is easy. It may have several meanings. Ascribe it to the best form”. Hz. Ali, who is the leader of the believers said: “The person who understands the Koran and interprets it gathers the knowledge in Himself.” He meant to say that the Koran mentions the essence (core) of all the Knowledge as well as the miracles and the news. Therefore, the most correct explanation is, “Whoever submits himself to Allah the Most High sincerely and obeys His Prophet and the Family of the Prophet cordially and acquires his knowledge from them and searches their information and learns some of their mysteries in order to have a rank in Knowledge and inner peace in Marifat (the Knowledge of Allah); if his eye of the heart is opened and if he contemplates the reality with the knowledge he has acquired, if he comes face to face with the spirit of certain knowledge, if he finds, those of which naughty ones frightened, mild, if he is acquainted with what the ignorant are afraid of and if his heart becomes with the highest rank while he is on earth..., such a person is able to benefit and profit the mysteries of the Koran.
(132) Tefsir-12, Prof. Dr. İsmail Cerrahoğlu, Doç. Dr. Şevki Saka, MEB Publ. P.52, Eskişehir, 1992.
(133) Ihyau Ulumi’ddin, Gazali, vol.1. p.262.
It is not surprising that it is from the benevolence of Allah and it is not strange that it is hoped from Allah. This is not a talent for only a certain group of people excluding others. A group of their friends regarded those who have these qualities, from themselves. Thus, they said “Selman is from Ahl al Bayt”. It is not a distant possibility for such a person who has these qualities to take part in among the scholars who know the interpretation of the Koran.” (134)
Later, some personages such as Taberi (225-839), Zamahşeri (467-1075), Fahruddin Razi (543-1149), Kâdi Beydâvi (death 691-1292), Ibn Kesir (701-1301), Elmalılı Muhammad Hamdi Yazır (1295-1879), Konyalı Mehmed Vehbi (1280-1864) interpreted the Koran. Now we are going to explain the characteristics of these interpretations mentioned as “Commentary”.
(134) Imam Jafer, M. Ebu Zehra, from Şafak Publ., “es-Sâfi”, p.9
WHEN INTERPRETATION BECOMES COMMENTARY...
“Feiza kara’nahu fettebi’ Kur’anehu sümme inne aleyna beyanehu - When we read it, follow the Koran attentively, We-Allah shall explain its meaning.” (Qıyamah, 18, 19)
According to the above verse: Although our Lord explained the Koran to our Prophet (A.S.W.), He did not interpret the verses of the Koran one by one starting from “Elif Lam Mim- the Sura of Baqhara” to “the Sura of Nas”, which is the last Chapter.
Hz. Ali, Ahl al Bayt and the Four Caliphs, the Companions, the Followers of the Prophet even the people who obey the Companions of the Prophet (Tebe-i Tabiin), the Twelve Imams, the Imams of the Four Religious Sects did not make the commentary of the whole Koran verse by verse. Hasan al Basri, Junayd al Bagdadi, Maruf-i Karhi, Sırri Sakati, Sayyid Abdülqadir Gilani, Sayyid Bahaeddin Naqshibendi, Abdülhalik-i Gücdüvani, Yusuf-u Hemedani, Beyazid-i Bistami, Zunnun-i Mısri, Ahmet Yesevi, Ahmed Faruk-u Serhindi, Jalaladdin-i Rumi, Hadji Beqtash-i Weli, Muhyiddin-i Arabi (May peace be with them) none of the Sufis attempted to interpret the Koran. These personalities are surely great scholars and Gnostics-wise people who know Ledünni- the Knowledge of Reality and the Physical Sciences very well. Even Hasan al Ashary and Maturidy did not attempt to comment on the Koran. (135)
These great, wise and valuable personalities explained only the necessary verses of the Koran, they did not interpret it in details, one by one.
Nobody can claim that the Knowledge of those great personalities, mentioned above, including the Ahla-l Bayt and the Companions have less or missing knowledge in interpreting the Koran than those who interpreted it. Since they had not interpreted the Koran, those commentators are really heedless.
Who attempts to make comments on the Koran verse by verse then? As it is seen, all the commentators are the scholars of the Physical Sciences or Exterior Sciences. They are philosophers and theological scholars.
(135) According to Maturidy “commentary” is the definite meaning of the word. It means to testify that this word has such a meaning on behalf of Allah. This can be done only with a definite proof. Or else it will be a commentary done using personal interpretation and this is forbidden. Forced or allegorical, symbolic interpretation (te’vil) means to prefer one of the likely meanings without being definite.” (Itkan, vol.2, p.179)
In this case, those, who attempted to interpret the Koran during the third and fifth centuries according to the Muslim Calendar, are the heedless of the Reality, and unaware of the Secrecy and Reality. The heedless are ignorant.
“Eccahilü cesurün - The ignorant are courageous.”
The Glorious Koran which spurted out from the pure spring of our dear Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) had taken a completely different form because of the personal benefits of some people, traditions, tribes, regions and the influence under certain sovereignties afterwards. If you search it with a well-intentioned effort impartially, you will get surprised and wondered whether these interpretations are based on this Divine Source book or not.
We regard the good ones free from this and remember them with respect.
The following are the examples of it:
In the commentaries of Mutazila, mind (reasoning) is essential. His commentaries have the seal of the principle: “Everything, which mind sees well, is good, everything, which mind sees badly is bad. As for them, the verses (the incontrovertible proofs) narrated by the Prophet are in the second place. They rarely explain the meanings using hadiths. They, themselves, made up most of the hadiths concerning mind (reasoning). Among these rationalist commentators, Carullah Mahmud Ibn Omar az Zamahsheri is the best one. Fazi attaches importance to Philosophy and Theology in his commentaries.
Beydavi has become the favourite of Ehl-i Sunnat because of his strong oppositions to the precepts of Mutazila Sect in his commentaries, in general.
Eb’u Suud Efendi also shows proofs in his commentaries to defend the precepts of the People of Sunnat.
Elmalılı Muhammad Hamdi Yazır wrote his commentary in the view of the People of Sunnat concerning belief (faith) and as for the practice, he wrote it according to the view of Hanefi sect.
Thus, each commentator has attempted to comment on the Koran and explain it in the way of his own belief. So, they suit (fit) the religion and the Koran to their own precepts. They suit the religion to religious sects whereas the Sects should be suited to religion. As a result, the religious sects take the place of the Religion and this causes contradictions, fights, duality and divisions. Unity is broken due to it.
There is also another claim among the Scholars of Exteriority (Externalists): “The holy traditions are the commentaries of the Koran”. If so, there should have been a book in which these holy traditions were collected. There is no such a book. If there is one among the holy traditions, it is possible to collect them. Then, why do they not collect them? Therefore, this is not a proved claim. This is an unwarranted assertion. It is an unreal claim.
If the Holy Traditions were considered as the whole commentary of the Koran, then, these Exterior commentators would make the commentaries of the Holy Traditions and they should interpret the commentaries.
There is also a matter of the Translation of the Koran and the Meaning (meal) of the Koran:
The Koran is obviously Arabic. It is suitable for Arabic Grammar and it is extraordinarily eloquent. For this reason, “the Koran cannot be translated into another language” is not a definite judgment. If so, the Koran becomes perceptible for only Arabs and for those who know Arabic. However Allah said for our Prophet:
“Vema erselnake illa kaffeten linnasi - I have sent you forth to all mankind.” (Saba, 28) According to this verse, He is sent to all the people and He is a blessing for all the people. It is also impossible to translate a language into another language a hundred percent correctly. None of the languages can be translated into another correctly as a whole. However, it can be correct ninety-five percent. There may be some difficulties in complete translation. The right meaning of the words may not be found or there may be some grammatical problems. In this case, the translator tries to find the closest meaning of that word. He does not attempt to explain the meaning of it because it becomes a short commentary then. The commentaries are not the translations of the Koran. For this reason, there are differences, conflicts and contradictions in the commentaries of it.
In addition to this, each commentator and interpreter comments or interprets according to his own belief, his understanding, his precept and his character. And this causes several disputes, separations and great groupings in understanding religion. The essence of religion is affected badly due to this. Our opinion on this subject shortly consists of these views.
We finish this chapter with an extract from Abdullah Ibn. Mes’ud:
Once, while Ibn Mes’ud was sitting with his friends, somebody came and said that he explained the 10th verse of the Sura of Duhan according to his own conjecture. Abdullah Ibn Mes’ud, who was one of the Prophet’s Companions, became angry and said: “Oh! People! Beware of Allah! If somebody knows something, he should say what he knows, if not he should say that Allah knows the best.” (136)
(136) Sahih-i Buhari, vol.6, p.142; Sahih-i Müslim, vol. 4, pp.2155-2156
Nowadays, it is has been discussed whether our Prophet performed any miracles or not, which the Christians used to do in the past. Unfortunately, it is being done by our so-called Theological Scholars now.
Firstly, the Prophets were born with the talent of performing miracles. The miracle was shown by the spiritual side of the Prophets, with the permission of the Lord; not by their physical, mortal side.
The former Prophets used to perform miracles publicly.
There are some reasons why our Prophet did not perform miracles. He sometimes requested permission to show miracles. And the answer of our Lord Allah was: “The unbelievers will not believe in whatever you show them (they will believe in none of Our signs, even if they see them one and all).” (An’ am, 25)
“Alif, Lam, mim, ra. These are the verses of the Book. That which is revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth, yet, most men do not believe.” (Rad, 1)
“An apostle of their own was sent to them, but they denied Him.” (Nahl, 113)
“For such men love the life of this world more than the life to come. God does not guide the unbelievers.” (Nahl, 107)
“We have told it many ways so that they may take warning. Yet, most men decline to render thanks. (They insisted on being ungrateful).” (Furqan, 50)
It is also emphasized that if an open miracle had been shown to all the people, they would not believe again and as a result, they would be incurred destruction. This happened during the former Prophets too.
“The people of Noah, too, rejected their Apostles.” (Shuara, 105)
“We overwhelmed the rest of them with the flood.” (Shuara, 120)
“The people of Ad, too, disbelieved their Apostles.” (Shuara, 123)
“The people of Lot, too, disbelieved their Apostles.” (Shuara, 160)
“We utterly destroyed the others.” (Shuara, 172)
It is also stated that the unbelievers during the Former Prophets surpassed the unbelievers of Mecca in unbelief and hypocrisy.
The unbelievers, who lived in the countryside during our Prophet, were more violent and primitive than those who lived in Mecca and in the cities.
“The desert Arabs surpass others in unbelief and hypocrisy and have more cause to be ignorant of the laws which God has revealed to His Apostle.” (Al-Tawba, 97)
“Some desert Arabs regard what they give as a compulsory fine and wait for some misfortune to befall you. May ill-fortune befall them!” (Al-Tawba, 98)
The miracles of our Prophet were intended for the city-dwellers, because our Prophet was from a city. Many people live in cities, if the miracles were shown to them and if they did not believe in them, the people who live in that city would completely be destroyed then.
The most important point is: our Prophet did not show any miracles to the majority of people and this does not mean that he did not have the talent of showing miracles. (God Forbid!) He was an Apostle like other Apostles. He was the greatest Prophet of the Four Great Prophets as he was the last one. The last is always better than the one before him (based on the mystery of evolution).
He is the last Apostle and a Blessing for the worlds (humanity). For this reason, he was certainly the most perfect Apostle and Prophet (A.S.W.). The Prophets know the invisible world and our Prophet also knows it. They convey it as much as Allah permits and show great miracles with the permission of Allah. Our Prophet had not shown any miracles to communities publicly so that they (people) would not be destroyed. He only showed “miracles concerning the heart” to the believers or to those who tented to believe.
When he was alone with Hz. Ebubekir in the cave, he was revealed “sakinah-divine tranquility” and his despair was caused to cease and his friend’s heart was comforted.
Hz. Prophet (S.A.W.) told his friend:
“...fi’l gâri iz yakulü lisahibihi lâtahzen... - In the cave, to his companion: ‘Do not despair, God is with us!” (Tawba, 40) Allah caused His tranquility to descend upon him in order to confirm His Prophet. This was a great miracle of the Prophet and it is confirmed by the Koran.
In the Koran, the events, which will happen in the future, are reported in advance, beforehand:
- The Greeks will invade Iran again:
“But, in a distant place, they (the Greeks) will gain victory after they have been defeated, in a few years (3-9). (The Greeks-Rum, 3-4)
- The Conquest of Mecca:
“We have given you a glorious victory so that Allah may forgive you, your past and future sins and perfect His goodness to you and Allah gives you a glorious victory.” (Al-Fath, 1-3)
- Many places belonging to the People of the Book will be conquered by the Muslims.
“He brought down from their strongholds those who had supported them from among the People of the Book and cast terror into their hearts. He made you the heirs of their places and properties and their lands which you did not step on yet.” (Ahzab, 26-27)
D) The Miraculous Journey of Our Prophet (A.S.W.): Our Prophet ascended above seven Heavens during the night of his miraculous journey from the Kaaba, from Mecca to Jerusalem, he ascended to Allah, to Sidra Tree, to the Garden of Repose. (Kab-ı Kawseyn):
“Glory be to Him (Allah) who made His servant go by night from the Sacred Temple (Mescid-i Haram) to the farther Temple (Mescid-i Aksa) whose surroundings We have blessed, that We might show him some of Our signs. He alone hears all and observes all.” (Isra, 1)
E) His word is not nonsense but it is a revelation. He saw the greatest sign of Allah, which is the face of Allah. The Discernment of the Heart of Muhammad is also confirmed by the following verse:
“By the declining star, He (Muhammad) is not in error, nor is he decieved. He does not speak out of his own fancy, this is an inspired revelation. He is taught by one who is powerful and mighty. He stood on the uppermost horizon, then, drawing near, he came down within two bows’ length or even closer and revealed to his servant that which he revealed. His own heart did not deny his vision. How can you, then question what he sees? He beheld him once again at the Sidra Tree, beyond which no one may pass.” (Najm, 1-13)
Also “Say: I and my followers are on the right path.” (Joseph, 108)
Many other miracles of our Prophet are confirmed with the sayings and the traditions of him. Our Prophet, our Master showed miracles to his faithful Companions secretly in order to comfort their hearts.
He avoided showing miracles to the crowds, for, he know that the unbelievers would be perished, yet, he was a Mercy for all the people and He was the last Prophet, but not that he had not the skill of showing miracles. Such a belief means denying his Prophecy, Apostleship and Guidance (God Forbid!).
The Apostles and Prophets may show (work) miracles. The Muslim Saints who are the real heirs to the Prophets both physically and spiritually are able to show “wonders”. This is what the Sufis, Asharies, Maturidies, the People of Sunnat and Shiites think.
Our Lord does not say that “No mortal eyes can see Allah”, He says: “no mortal eyes can encompass Allah.” (En’am, 103)
The eyes surely cannot encompass Allah, if they do, then Allah will be limited. However, Allah is the infinite, unlimited existence. He is the infinite Sea of Divine Light.
As the infinite is unlimited, He is the Sole One, the Absolute One because two infinite beings are not possible. Eyes are able to see Allah as much as they can. Thus, eyes are not able to see the whole sea, the whole world, the whole sky but this does not mean that eyes cannot see the world or the sky.
And our Lord does not say that eyes cannot see him, He says eyes cannot encompass Him.
Allah encompasses all things as well as eyes. This verse even includes the “eye of the heart.” The eye of the heart cannot also see the infinite completely. Sometimes, the Lord descends (is seen) in the shape of a human.
“Ela innehu bikülli sey’in muhit - Surely He encompasses all things.” (Fussilet, 54)
The following verse also confirms it:
“On that day, there shall be shining faces looking towards their Lord.” (Qıyamat, 22-23)
The following are some of the Holy words of our Exalted Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (A.S.W) about this subject:
“Allah has such servants that their bodies are in the world, but their hearts are under the Throne.”
“I saw my Lord as a handsome young man.”
“I understood my Lord with my Lord.”
“I have such a time with Allah that neither a close Angel nor an Apostle or a Prophet can ooze there.”
Hz. Ali (k.v.) says: “I do not worship the God whom I do not see.”
Hz. Omar (r.a.) says: “My heart saw my Lord with the Divine Light of my Lord.” (137)
As the reporting of the above verses were proved to be right and the future events were reported to the Prophet beforehand, they show us the truth that the knowledge about the inner world is conveyed and they are the miracles of our Prophet as well.
Was the revelation of the Koran to Him not from the inner world? Was it not a miracle? (138) Are the Angel Gabriel and the Holy Spirits not from the invisible world?
The Koran is the speech of Allah. It is pertaining to Unknown and it is miraculous.
The Prophet had not written the Koran using his own mind, by thinking or reading it.
(137) Sırrül Esrar, Seyyid Abdulkadir Geylani, p.54, trans. by A.Akçiçek Rahmet Publ. Ist. 1968
(138) Our dear Prophet says: “It is true that the greatest miracle given as a favour to me is the Koran which is revealed to me by Allah”. He does not say that he is not given any other miracles. The Torah, the Psalms of David, the Bible are also the great miracles which were given to Moses, David and Jesus the Christ. Our Prophet was also given many miracles besides the Koran same as they were given to the former Prophets.”
(Bukhari, Sahih, the Virtues of the Koran)
God’s revelation or Divine Message to someone is a proof that he is an apostle who gives information about the inner world and it is particularly a miracle of that person.
All the Apostles, Prophets, Saints are the Perfect Men.
The Perfect Man is a servant (abd) concerning his mortal- exterior side and he is divine with his Holy Spirit qualified with the qualities of the Lord. He has the Knowledge of God and he is holy because the Spirit is the Command of Allah, His Word and His Pure Attribute.
The Spirit of our Prophet is the first Spirit of Allah. It is the Great-Supreme Spirit, the source of the Spirits. It is the Universal Spirit.
“When Adam was between mud and water, I was even the Prophet.” (139) and;
“I have sent you (Muhammad) but as a blessing to mankind.” (Anbiya, 107)
“Were it not for you, O Muhammad, I would not have brought the creatures into being.” (A Divine Hadith)
This is confirmed by the above divine hadith and the verse of the Koran.
He is both the First Spirit and the Supreme Spirit like the Sun.
Therefore, the greatest Prophet is the First and the Last Master. He is the Sayyid, the Lord, the Master of the former ones and the latter ones.
Our Prophet (S.A.W.) is our Holy and Exalted Master. He is our Pride. “Allahümme salli ala seyyidina Muhammedin ve âla ali seyyidina Muhammed. Velhamdülillahi Rabbi’l alemin - Allahu a’lem. O my God! Exalt Muhammad and the Family of Muhammad. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Universe.”
Allah knows the best.
(139) Thirmizi, Sünen, Menakıb-l. Ibn-i Hanbel vol. 4, p. 66.
THE EXPRESSIONS, “THE ALLAH OF THE KORAN-THE ISLAM OF THE KORAN.”
Some people say that they are summoning you to “the Allah of the Koran and to the Islam of the Koran” disregarding the Scholar, the Wise and the Spiritual leaders (in Sufi Language they are called as Pir, Sheikh). They are inventing some expressions that do not exist in the Islamic Scientific Literature. It is a fact that a primary school graduate, a Professor or a scholar-a wise person understand the Koran differently. Every literate person understands the Koran according to his own ability when he reads it. The Koran is understood by people as much as their ability.
The statement “the Allah of the Koran” is incorrect because the word “Allah” belongs to the real God who is the Lord of the Universe. Therefore, the word “Allah” is special but the word “God” is not special. The polytheists have unreal- false gods. These gods are invented. The real God is Allah. When it is said “the Allah of the Koran” it occurs to mind that, as if, there is another Allah. Our God is the God about whom Hz. Muhammad (A.S.), Hz. Abraham (A.S.) and 28 Prophets informed us. This god is One- Sole and He is the Creator of all things. There is no other god except Him. We worship the God of Hz. Muhammad (A.S.), Hz. Abraham (A.S.) and the God of the Koran. Therefore, you may say “the God of the Koran” or “the God of Hz. Muhammad (A.S.), the God of Hz. Abraham (A.S.)
You may also ask a person, “Who is your God?” but not “Who is your Allah?” If he is a Muslim, he says “My God is Allah”, if he is a pagan, he says: “My God is Al-Lât, Al-Menat, Al-Uzza, Al-Hubal” which means “egoism-pride-wealth-lust” and fame”.
When the Prophet Jacob asked his children: “What will you worship when I am gone?” They replied: “ilahake ve ilahe âbâike İbrahime ve İsmaile ve İshak’a ilahen Vahiden-We will worship your God and the God of your forefathers Abraham, Ismael and Isaac: the One God.” (Al-Baqhara, 133)
The Islam of the Koran is the Islam, which is the Religion of Allah, and informed us by Hz. Muhammad. Islam is not possible without Suunat because the Sunnat of the Prophet is the performance and the practice of the Koran. It is a gross error to summon to the Islam of the Koran disregarding Sunnat. Calling directly to the Koran is to exempt the Prophet of Allah, the Scholars and the Wise who are the heirs of the Prophet. You must speak very carefully on this matter. Allah mentioned His Messenger together with His name in many verses saying “Obey Allah and His Prophet!” (Muhammad, 33- Taghabun, 12) and “Be contented with the judgment of Allah and His Apostle!” (Ahzab, 36) He is exalting His Prophet, the righteous, the believers and the Saints who are the heirs of Him.
The word of the Prophet is the word of Allah and his words are not nonsense depending on the verse: “The word of Muhammad is a Divine Revelation.” This is in reality same as the lights of the Sun are not separated from the Sun.
You should be cautious in these matters. The Prophet (A.S.) permitted “ijtihad-independent interpretation”. Ijtihad is permitted in Islam and there may be some mistakes in ijtihad as the “mujtehids-the interpreters of Islamic Law” are ordinary people but not Messengers.
Although those who use the expressions: “the Allah of the Koran, the Islam of the Koran” say that they are not “reformists”, they sound like reformist. This means to leave that door ajar. If that door is left ajar, it becomes a great sin which does not look like any other sins. Islam, the Religion of Allah does not need any reforms. The Religion of Allah is perfect. It is important to understand the essence of the Religion of Allah and to explain it according to the People of that age without changing its origin because it is possible and necessary to explain the Koran in accordance with the understanding of that century. This specialty exists in the Koran. The greatest miracle of the Koran is: it concerns all the centuries, all the times.
We hope that our scholar and respected brother who reached a high level in Knowledge will clarify his expressions by appropriating and explaining them. We think that it is his right reaction towards the corrupted Jurisprudence and present false sheikhs.
We assure that he knows that a real Sufi saint is either a Sufi Leader of a Tariqat or an adherent, follower of a Sufi leader.
What he gets angry about is the unacceptable behaviors of the adherents of the present Tariqats. We believe that we agree on each other in the essence of it and we love and respect this Scholar brother.
If that brother does not wear a moustache, we do not wear beard either. We also still have our hat on our head and we are against to all kinds of formal piety. However, we should make a distinction between what is correct and incorrect. We should not exempt the good ones when we get angry with the bad ones. We should not give up the truth while criticizing the mistakes.
FAITH MAY INCREASE OR DECREASE
Faith is the spiritual guidance of Allah. It is the mercy of Allah. Allah has pity on whom He chooses. He knows on whom He will have mercy. The Koran also explains it in this way. “Nobody, including the Prophets and Saints, is able to guide a person whom Allah has not guided.” Faith is bestowed by Allah. It is a gift given by the Mercy of Allah. It is not a teaching but it is a feeling, a manner. (An’am, 125)
The Prophets and Saints can only train and perfect those whom Allah has guided. They perfect him/her by means of support and intercession. They do not intercede the unbelievers whom Allah has not guided. Everything is done by the permission of Allah. There are Perfect Men, Walis (Saints) to whom Allah has given the permission to intercede, to pray and to train. Faith is not scientific or academic. It is a psychological event. It descends from the Heaven. It is divine. It is a divine light or Heavenly light and it comes true with the guidance of Allah. Nobody can have faith unless Allah wills. Faith is bestowed by Allah. Knowledge means acquiring the realities of faith. For instance, the believer is a person who believes in Allah but he may not have the Knowledge of Allah. Non- Muslim sociologists learn these subjects at school, but the person who knows the articles of Faith may not be called “a believer”.
Thus, having faith in Allah and knowing the faith in Allah are not same.
Then, faith is not scientific. “Faith is a Divine Light.” (Tahrim, 8) It is developed gradually. It starts with a little amount and continues to the Absolute faith. If the faith of all the people were absolute, then all the people would be Absolute Believers. However, the Absolute Faith exist in the Apostles, Prophets, Wise and Saints. For example, is the faith of a sinner same with the faith of Hz. Abu Bakir? Does a person who reached the faith of Hz. Abu Baqir commit a great sin? The expressions such as “Faith cannot increase or decrease” are all logical tricks and made to deceive people.
In the Koran, it is indicated that “the nearness by Knowledge” and “the nearness by Faith” are different matters. Faith concerns the inner world but Knowledge is acquired by proving something. “Aynel Yakîn-the Nearness with certainty (essence of certainty)” means religious certitude based on revelation, and these are above the faith. Faith, based on revelation, is certainly very strong. There is also “Hakkal Yakin (truth of certainty)” which means being certain justly.
That is why, if Allah, who is Divine Light, descends the Divine Light of the Absolute Faith into the heart of an imperfect person at once, he is obsessed by divine light and he becomes mad because he cannot bear it. Therefore Allah says: “Ela bi zikrillahi tetmeinnül kulûb-All the hearts are comforted with the remembrance of God.” (Rad, 28) He means to say: “Let your faith become strong and your strength increase with the remembrance of Allah.”
“Believers! Have faith as the believers have faith!” (Nisa: 136, Baqhara: 137) So, the faith of the believers is at different levels or degrees. Although Hz. Abraham was a Prophet, he asked Allah: “Show me, Lord, how You will raise the dead?” He replied: “Have you no faith?” “Yes” said Abraham “but just to reassure my heart”. (Baqhara, 260)
It is understood by this verse that he was not in an assured faith at that instant, so there may be both a perfect and imperfect faith.
Allah reassures the heart of Hz. Abraham (A.S.) who is our fore -father. The faith of Hz. AbuBaqir has also been supported in the cave and his despair was gone.
After that, Hz. Abu Baqr was comforted in the cave and his faith was increased as it is plainly stated in the verse. (Tawba, 40)
The statement, “Faith does not increase or decrease” is due to the confusion of faith and Knowledge. Such statements are not based on the Koran and Sunnat, but they are the results of Logic and Philosophy. They are contrary to the Divine Message.
It is also a gross error to say: “Faith is faith, you either believe in something or not, so, faith does not increase or decrease”. According to them, knowledge is philosophical, rational and certain. It is like: 2x2=4 or it is not, 4 is 4 and it is a mathematical fact. Accepting this as a fact and saying that it cannot be less or more than that can only be a mathematical reality used in Physical Sciences. However, faith is a Divine Light and it is a metaphysical divine reality.
One of the names of Allah is “Mümin- Believer”. It is an attribute of Allah. The attribute of Allah is Divine Light; so, the attribute of faith is also Divine Light because the God has an attribute of faith too. If faith were scientific and rational (concerning thought), then, those who were illiterate or those who did not go to school would not have any faith. Whereas; 80 percent of the Companions of the Prophet were illiterate. Even, in this age, most of the believers are not educated well, they are also illiterate. Calling all of them unbelievers would be a sign of unbelief.
Allah says. “Do not get suspicious after you have believed.” (Nisa, 137)
He says this to confirm that there are some believers, who are still in suspicion. If it had been as they claimed, then the faith of a person should not have been decreased or he should not have been suspicious after he had believed.
In addition to this: “Satan wants to make you an unbeliever.” (Baqhara, 268) (Hijr, 4)
By these verses, it is explained that Satan’s attempt has come true and he has made some of the believers unbelievers.
The proofs Allah gives for the unbelievers in the Koran are exterior proofs and examples. He is reproaching them by these examples. Yet, He says: “He did not guide them and they would not have faith unless He guided them.” (Teghabun, 6) It is difficult to have faith with exterior proofs. Our Lord also says: “They will believe in none of our signs even if they see them one and all.” (A’nam, 25) (Hijr, 15)
They cannot even understand the realities of the Physical World or the Creation. It is hard to deduce with exteriority not only for the illiterate but also for the philosophers. They are always in suspicion.
Another example of the increasing and decreasing of faith is as follows: In the morning, it begins to grow light when dawn breaks and the light vanishes at sunset. The light increases at dawn and this draws an example of a Perfect Faith. When the light gets less and less, it draws an example of unbelief, cruelty and infidelity.
The Prophet Muhammad (A.S) is the Sun. Ahl al Bayt is the Moon. The Companions are the Stars. The ranks and degrees of the Divine Light of Faith are shown by this and it is written both in Hadith-i Sherif and Kütüb-ü Sitte.
Allah the Most High states in many verses that He guided the believers Himself and He chose them. He does not put exterior proofs to the believers. He says He guided them. The believers have faith by means of the guidance of Allah and with the prayers of the Perfect Men, Apostles and Saints. He also said: “However much they have mercy on people (Yet, strive as you may) most men will not believe” (Joseph, 103) He also says: “The unbelievers are cruel and sinners and their grave sins prevent them from having faith and they deserve the punishment.” As it is understood from this verse, Allah has His Wrath on them and they should stay in torment. It is also reported in some verses that first, “they should be forgiven by Allah in order to have faith but Allah will not forgive them.” (Baqarah, 272 – Nahl, 137 – Isra, 15) He also says that they want spiritual proofs not exterior signs, yet; they will not believe in even they are shown spiritual proofs. He says: “They ask: ‘Why has no angel been seen to the Prophet?’ “If I had sent them an angel-like Prophet I would have given him the semblance of a man and would have thus added to their suspicion.” (An’am, 8-9-10) It is explained very clearly in these verses that they are very cruel and sadist people who torture men. They hurt God very much; and Allah cursed them and they must be punished very severely and Allah will take His revenge from them by a woeful scourge. (Yunus, 100)
A subject related to the heart is also mentioned in the Koran He says: “Faith is in the heart but not in the mind or it is not gained with Physical Knowledge.” (Hajj, 46) (Araf, 179) Faith is in the heart which believes in the inner world and the heart of the unbelievers is evil. He also says: “their eyes in their bosoms are blind but not their physical eyes.” (An’am, 25) Here, the eyes in their bosoms refer to the heart. This is the eye of the heart-spirit. It is understood that this is the heart which sees, believes, which is comforted and which beats with the remembrance of Allah but not an organic heart. In another verse, it is said: “This Koran is an advice for those who listen to Him and who have hearts.” (Ta-Ha, 3)
Here, “to listen,” means the person that has heard the revelation and this is “martyrdom”. It means to see the God personally. The unbelievers do not have hearts, the spiritual hearts. This is the divine heart called as “gönül” by the lovers.
The Paradise and the beautiful attributes of Allah are forbidden for those who do not have a heart. There are many verses on this subject but we do not want to tire the readers. Those who read the commentaries of the Koran meet them very often.
“Why do they not have faith?” Because they are very guilty, sinner, cruel and keen liars. As it is explained in the above verse, they tell lies as a habit and their great sins prevent them from having faith.
They cannot have faith even though they want it, because they have some obstacles. The sinners also differentiate among themselves:
Müsrif: Prodigal; those who lead a life of careless, wasteful spending.
Müznib: Sinner; those who commit sins and disobey God.
Mücrib: Arch-transgressors: those who have been guilty of many crimes.
It is said that the crime of Adam physical and mortal. He committed sins but he apologized and Allah forgave him. Whereas Satan committed crimes arrogantly; and he was cursed and dismissed.
The arch-transgressors are the cruel. They are proud and influential people. Allah defines them as: “...ekabire mücrimiha-the rich sinners.” They are the influential people-the sinners, the criminals of that place as reported in the Koran. It is told in the Koran that they were the people who firstly objected to all the Prophets, they did not believe in them and they tortured them. It is clearly explained in the Koran that there are some weak helpers, supporters, if I may say so, the toadies of these cruel sinners and they become the partners of their guilt as well as dirty pleasures. In another verse: “They actually do not deny you O Muhammad, what will they deny in you? Yet, such men love the life of this world more than the life to come.” (Baqarah, 146 - Nahl, 107) It means that they do not want to leave their illegal pleasures” because if they believe the Prophet, they will give up their bad habits. Therefore, they have some obstacles and they, themselves, are the reasons of it; their carnal desires and their addiction of pleasures.
Allah says that He is “Azizün züntikam - He is mighty and capable of revenge.” (Al-i Imran, 4) (Maida, 95) And He says He will punish them severely. All the names of Allah are on process and they come true.
The Great Lord says “He will guide those who did not go astray.” (Maidah, 94)
He guides whom He chooses and He does not guide whom He does not will. In classical definition, faith is not gained, but it is bestowed by Allah. It is a gift of God, a Divine Present and a Mercy of Allah. It is practically obvious that it cannot be gained by working, studying and reading.
There are many literate who are unbelievers...
There are many illiterate who are believers...
There are some believers who are Scholars...
There are those both ignorant and unbelievers...
Allah knows the best of all things. May Allah protect us from overstepping the limits and May He guide us!
THE VERSES ABOUT INTERCESSION IN OUR GLORIOUS BOOK-THE KORAN
a) The verses about the “intercession” of the personalities who receive their power from Allah.
“He that intercedes with a good intercession shall gain a share by his intercession.” (Al-Nisa, 85)
“Our Lord’s Apostles have surely preached the truth before. Will no one plead on our behalf? Could we but live our lives again, we would not do as we have done?” (A’raf, 53)
“None has power to intercede except those to whom Allah has given permission.” (Yunus, 3)
“They intercede for none save those whom He has given His consent.” (Al-Anbiyah, 28)
“It was the evil-doers who led us astray. We have no intercessors now, no loving friend. Could we but live our lives again we would be true believers.” (Shuara, 99-102)
“None has power to intercede for them except him who has received permission (the sanction) of the Merciful.” (Maryam, 87)
“On that day no intercession will avail except from him that has received the sanction (permission) of Allah who is the Merciful and whose word is pleasing to Him.” (Ta-Ha, 109)
“None can intercede with Allah save him who has received His permission in the presence of Him. (Sebe, 23)
“Say: ‘Intercession is wholly in the hands of God. (None can intercede except those to whom Allah gave the permission.)” (Zumar, 44)
“What has brought you into Hell? They will reply: We never prayed nor did we ever feed the hungry. We engaged in vain disputes and denied the Day of Reckoning till the inevitable end overtook us. No intercessor’s plea shall save them.” (Mudassir: 42, 48)
“Numerous are the angels in the heavens, yet their intercession shall avail nothing until God leaves to whom He accepts and chooses.” (Al-Najm: 26)
b) The verses about those who think that the people who do not get their power from Allah are also able to intercede:
An’am: 51-70, Mudassir: 48, Yunus: 3, Sajda: 4, Rum: 13, Zumar: 43-44, An’am: 94, Yunus: 18, Baqarah: 48-254-123, Zukhruf: 86, Yâ Sin: 23.
THE VERSES ABOUT GUARDIANSHIP IN OUR GLORIOUS BOOK, THE KORAN:
a) The verses about having a guardian (friend, protector) who receives his power from Allah:
“Surely, the men who are nearest to Abraham are those who follow him, that Prophet and the true believers. Allah is the guardian, the friend of the faithful.” (The Imrans: 68)
“Lord! Send forth to us a guardian from Your presence, send to us from Your presence one that will help us.” (Nisa, 75)
“The friend who is a guide...” (Kahf, 17)
“Zachariah said: “I now fear my kinsmen who will succeed me, for my wife is barren. Grant me a “guardian-a friend –a saint” who will be my heir from your presence.” (Maryam, 5)
“Your only protectors (Friends, guardians-walis) are God, His Apostle and the faithful: those who attend to their prayers, render the alms levy and kneel down in worship.” (Al-Maidah, 55)
“They shall dwell in peace with their Lord. He will give them His protection in reward for what they do.” (An’am, 127)
“Some of the faithful are the friends (protectors, guardians) of each-other.” (An’fal: 72)
“Every nation has its mentor (intercessor)” (Ra’d, 7)
“The day will surely come when We shall summon every nation with its apostle (Imam, leader, guide) (Isra, 71)
“Kül innema ene beşerün mislüküm yüha-Say: I am a mortal like yourselves. But I have the Divine Word, the Holy Spirit, the exalted knowledge of Allah, which is more than you have.” (Al-Kahf, 110)*
“O the Family of the Prophet (Ahla-l Bait), God seeks only to remove uncleanness from you and to purify you.” (Ahzab, 33)
“The true believers, both men and women are friends to one another. They enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil, they attend to their prayers and render the alms levy and obey God and His Apostle. On these God will have mercy. God is mighty and wise.” (Al-Tawba, 71)
* This is not the translation of the verse but the interpretative introduction of it.
“The friends of God have nothing to fear or regret. Those that have faith and keep from evil shall rejoice both in this world and in the hereafter, the word of God shall never change. That is the supreme triumph.” (Yunus, 62-64)
“When we said to the Angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam’ they all prostrated themselves except Satan, who was a jinnee, disobedient to his Lord. Would you then serve him and his off springs as your masters rather than Myself, despite their enmity towards you? A sad substitute the wrongdoers have chosen.” (Kahf: 50)
“They said: ‘Shall mortals be our guides? They disbelieved and they gave heed and became unbelievers.” (Teghabun, 6)
“It is He that has sent forth among the illiterate an Apostle of their own to recite to them His revelations, to purify them and to instruct them in the Book and in wisdom, though they have hitherto been in gross error.” (Cumah, 2)
“Vekâlellezi âmenna yâ kevmittebiûni ehdiküm sebillereşâd-The believer (the Friend of God) said: ‘Follow me, my people, that I may guide you to the right path.” (Mü’min, 38)
“... that you (all mankind) may have faith in Allah and His apostle and that you may assist Him, honor Him and praise Him morning and evening.” (Fetih, 9)
“He will vouchsafe them guidance and ennoble their states, He will admit them to the Paradise He has made known to them.”
“Believers! If you help God, He will help you and make you strong.” (Muhammad, 5-6-7)
“Those that do not obey God’s summoner shall not leave Allah helpless in the world, nor shall there be any friends to protect them besides Him. Surely they are in evident error.” (Ahqaf, 32)
“As for those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allah, and take the right path to Him, the Angels will descend to them saying: ‘Let nothing alarm or grieve you. Rejoice in the Paradise you have been promised. We are your guardians in this world and in the hereafter.” (Fussilat, 30-31)
“Allah is the Patron (friend, saint) of the faithful. He leads them from darkness to the light. As for the unbelievers, their patron is Satan who leads them from light to darkness. They are the heirs of the Hell and shall abide in it forever.” (Baqarah, 257)
“The Prophet has greater love on the faithful than their own souls.” (Ahzab, 6)
“Those that have embraced the faith and fled their homes and fought for the cause of God with their wealth and with their persons, and those that sheltered them and helped them, shall be as friends to each other...” (Anfal, 72)
“Fight for the cause of God with the devotion due to Him. He has chosen you and laid on you no burdens in the observance of your faith, the faith of Abraham, your father. In this, as in former scriptures, He has given you the name of Muslims, so that this Apostle may testify against you and that you yourselves may testify against your fellowmen. Therefore attend to your prayers, render the alms levy and hold fast to God, for, He is your Guardian. A gracious guardian and a gracious helper.” (Hajj, 78)
“God is the protector (Wali) of the faithful, the unbelievers have no protector.” (Muhammad, 11)
“If you conspire against the Prophet, know that God is his protector and Gabriel and the righteous among the faithful. The Angels are too his helpers.” (Tahrim, 4)
“I taught Adam (the Perfect Man) all my Names.” (Al-Baqarah, 31)
“Inni cailun fi’l ardi halifeten- I placed on the earth Adam (Man) that shall rule as My deputy.” (Al- Baqarah, 30)
“We have sent you forth to proclaim to the truth and to give warning.” (Al-Baqarah, 119)
Note: Two interesting holy verses about those who worship false gods besides Allah; Anqabut, 41 and Zumar, 3. It is seen that those, who worship false gods besides Muhammad (Perfect Man or İnsan-ı Kamil), have gone astray when these two above verses compared with Ahkaf, 32.
“When His Lord put Abraham to the proof by enjoining on him certain commandments and Abraham fulfilled them, He said: ‘I have appointed you an Imam (a leader, a guide) for mankind’. (Al-Baqarah 124)
“Thus we have sent forth to you an Apostle (The Prophet- The Perfect Man) of your own who will recite to you Our revelations and purify you of sin, who will instruct you in the book and in wisdom and teach you that of which you have no knowledge.” (Baqarah, 151)
“Kül in küntüm tühibbunallahe fettebiuni........ ,-say: “If you love Allah, follow me. God will love you and forgive you your sins.” (The Imrans, 31)
“When Jesus observed that they had no faith, he said: ‘Who will help me to go to Allah?’ The disciples replied: ‘We are the helpers of Allah’.” (The Imrans, 52)
“No mortal to whom God has given the Scriptures and whom He has endowed with judgment and prophethood would say to men: ‘Worship me instead of Allah, but rather: ‘Be devoted servants of God’.” (The Imrans, 79)
“Cling one and all to the rope of Allah (the Perfect Man) and let nothing divide you. Remember the favours God has bestowed upon you, how after your enmity, He united your hearts, so that you are brothers through His grace and how He delivered you from the abyss of fire when you stood on the very bring of it.” (The Imrans, 103)
“Let there become of you a nation that shall call for the righteousness, enjoin justice and forbid evil. Such men will surely triumph.” (The Imrans, 104)
“Varied are those (they are at different ranks) in the presence of Allah.” (The Imrans, 163)
“Never think that those were slain in the cause of Allah are dead. They are alive and well-provided for by their Lord.” (The Imrans, 169)
“God was not to leave the faithful in their present plight, but only to separate the evil from the good. Nor was God to reveal to you what is hidden. But God chooses those of His Apostles, for if you have faith and guard yourselves against evil, your reward shall be rich indeed.” (The Imrans, 179)
“Our Lord, we have heard someone calling to the true faith saying: ‘Believe in your Lord’ and we believed Lord, forgive our sins and remove from us our evil deeds and make us die with the righteous.”
“Lord, grant us what you promised through Your Apostles, and do not hold us up to shame on the day of Resurrection. You will never break Your promise.”
“The Lord answers them, saying: ‘I will deny no man or woman among you the reward of their labors. I shall forgive them their sins and admit them to the gardens watered by running streams as a reward from God. God holds the richest recompense.” (The Imrans: 193, 194, 195)
“He that obeys You (the Apostle) obeys Allah” (Nisa, 80)
“How will their condition be when We produce a witness from every nation and call upon you to testify against them.” (Nisa, 41)
“On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Apostle will wish that they were leveled into dust, they shall hide nothing from God.” (Nisa, 42)
“If when they wronged themselves, they had come to you imploring God’s pardon and if the Apostle had sought of God’s forgiveness for them, they would have found God Forgiving and Merciful.” (Nisa, 64)
“Those who deny God and Apostles and those that draw a line between God and Apostles, saying: ‘We believe in some but deny others’ - thus seeking a middle way- these indeed are the unbelievers.”(Nisa, 150-151)
“......of some Apostles We have already told you, but there are others of whom We have not yet spoken.....and Allah spoke to Moses.” (Nisa, 164)
“Believers, do not choose the infidels rather than the faithful for your friends.” (Nisa, 144)
“Vebteu ileyhi’l vesile..... - He who wants to find God should obey the mediator.” (Maidah, 35)
“When I enjoined the Disciples to believe in Me and My Apostle, they replied: ‘We believed in. You bear witness that we are the real Muslims.” (Maidah, 111)
“They ask: ‘Why has no angel been seen to him (the Perfect Man)? If we had sent down an angel, their fate would have been sealed and they would have never been reprieved.
If We had made him (the Perfect Man) an Angel, We would have given him the semblance of a man and would have thus added to their confusion.
Other Apostles have been laughed to scorn before you. But those that scoffed at them were overtaken by the very scourge they had derided.” (An’am: 8, 9, 10)
“Those to whom We have given the Scriptures know him (the Perfect Man) as they know their own children. But those who have forfeited their souls will never have faith.”(An’am, 20)
“We sent forth Apostles only to give good news to mankind and to warn them. Those that believe in them and mend their way shall have nothing to fear and regret.”(An’am, 48)
“Those are the men whom God guided. Follow then their guidance and say: ‘I demand of you no recompense for this. It is an admonition to all mankind.” (An’am: 90)
“Momentous signs (the eyes of the heart) have come to you from your Lord. He that sees them shall himself have much to gain, but he who is blind to them shall lose much indeed. I am not your keeper.” (An’am: 104)
“Thus have we assigned for every Prophet an enemy, the devils among men and jinn.” (An’am, 112)
“Can the dead man whom We have raised to life and given a light to walk with among men, be compared to him who is in darkness from which he will never emerge?” (An’am, 122)
“We will question those to whom the messengers were sent, and We will question the messengers themselves.” (A’raf: 6)
“Do you think it is strange that an admonition (ziqr) should come to you from Your Lord through a mortal like yourselves and that We should warn you? (A’raf: 69)
“The enchanters (magicians) prostrated themselves all saying: ‘We believe in the Lord of the Universe, the Lord of Moses and Aaron.” (A’raf: 120-122)
“Vema remeyte izremeyte ve lâkinnellahe rema-It was not you but God who slew them.” (Enfal: 17)
“Prophet! God is your strength (Allah is sufficient) for you and for the faithful who follow you.” (Anfal, 64)
“There has now come to you an Apostle of your own, one who grieves at your troubles and cares for you, one who is benevolent and merciful to true believers.” (Tawba, 128)
“We revealed Our will to a mortal from among themselves, saying: ‘Give warning to mankind and proclaim good tidings to the faithful. Their endeavors shall be rewarded by their Lord’. The unbelievers say: ‘This man is obviously a skillful enchanter.” (Yunus, 2)
“Know that the friends-the servants (Walis) of Allah have nothing to fear or to regret. Those who have faith and keep from evil shall rejoice both in this world and in the hereafter, the Word of Allah shall never change. That is the supreme triumph.” (Yunus: 62, 63, 64)
“The verses: 25, 26, 27, 28 of the Chapter Hud are about the conversation between Noah (A.S.) and his people concerning the acceptance or refusing the Perfect Man.”
“Every nation has a guide.” (Ra’d, 7)
“Allah guides those who repent and have faith (who inclines to Himself). (Ra’d: 27)
“Each Apostle We have sent has spoken in the language of his own people, so that he might make his meaning clear to them.” (Abraham, 4)
“We sent forth Moses with our signs, saying: ‘Lead your people out of darkness into the light and remind them of God’s favors: Surely, in this, there are signs for every steadfast thankful man.” (Abraham: 5)
“We will not punish a nation until We have sent forth an Apostle to forewarn them.” (Isra, 15)
“When We said to the Angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam’ they all prostrated themselves except Satan who replies: ‘Shall I bow to him whom You have made of clay? Do you see this being whom You have exalted above me? If You give me respite till the Day of Resurrection, I will exterminate all but a few of his descendants.”
“Be gone!” said He. “Hell is your reward and the reward of those that follow you. An ample reward it shall be. Rouse with your voice whomever you are able. Muster against them all your forces. Be their partner in their riches and in their offspring. Promise them what you will. But over My true servants you shall have no power. Your Lord will be their all-sufficient Guardian.” (Isra: 61, 62, 63, 64, 65)
“We shall summon every nation with its Apostle (Imam, leader, guide) on that Day. (Isra: 71)
“Nothing prevents men from having faith when guidance is revealed to them but the excuse: ‘Can it be that God has sent a human-being as an Apostle?” (Isra, 94)
“We ordained them leaders to guide mankind at Our behest, and enjoined on them charity, prayer and almsgiving. They served none but Ourself.” (Al-Anbiyah, 73)
“We wrote in the Psalms after the Torah was revealed: ‘The righteous (the pure) among My servants shall inherit the earth.” (Al-Anbiyah: 105)
“Muhammad! We have sent you forth but as a blessing to mankind.” (Anbiyah: 107)
“Kul ya eyyühennasü innema ena leküm nezîrün mübin-Say: Men! I have been sent to warn you plainly.” (Hajj: 49)
“Allah chooses His messengers from the angels and from men. God hears all and observes all.” (Hajj: 75)
“Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. His light may be compared to a niche that enshrines a lamp, the lamp within a crystal of star-like brilliance. It is lit from a blessed olive tree neither eastern nor western. Its very oil would almost shine forth, though no fire touched it. Light upon light, God guides to His Light whom He will. God speaks in metaphors to men. God has knowledge of all things. His light is found in temples God has sanctioned to be built for the remembrance of His name. In them, morning and evening, His praise is sung by men. (Nur: 35, 36)
“On that day the wrongdoers will bite his hands and say: ‘Would that I had walked in the Apostle’s path! Oh, would that I had never chosen so and so for my companion.” (Furqan: 27, 28)
“We have sent you only to proclaim good news and to give warning.” (Furqan, 56)
“Never have We destroyed a nation whom We did not warn and admonish beforehand. We are never unjust.” (Shuara, 208)
“Show kindness to those of the believers who swear fealty to you (follow you).” (Shuara: 215)
“Say: ‘Praise be to God, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen! Who is more worthy, God or the idols they serve besides Him?” (Naml, 59)
“None shall hear you except those who believe in Our revelations and They surrender themselves to Us right away (they became Muslims)” (Naml, 81)
“On that day God will call them, saying: ‘What answer did you give Our Apostles?” (Kassas: 65)
“Certainly, the Prophet is blessed by God and His angels. Bless him, then, you that are true believers, and greet him with a worthy salutation. Those who torture Allah and His Apostle are cursed by God in this life and in the life to come. He has prepared for them a shameful punishment.” (Ahzab: 56, 57)
“We have sent no apostle to any nation whose messenger was not denied by those of them that lived in comfort.” (Sebe: 34)
“We have bestowed the Book on those of Our servants whom We have chosen. Some sin against their souls, some follow a middle course, and some, by God’s leave, vie with each other in charitable works: This is the supreme virtue.” (Fatir: 32)
“They solemnly swore by God that if a Prophet should come to warn them, they would accept his guidance more readily than did other nations. Yet, when someone did come to warn them, they turned away from Him.” (Fatir: 42)
“You shall admonish (warn) none but those who observe Our precepts (who obeys the remembrance) and fear the Merciful, though they cannot see Him.” (Yâ Sin: 11)
“We certainly had sent Apostles (Guides, Prophets) to give them warning.” (Saffat: 72)
“But why do we not see those whom we deemed wicked and whom we laughed to scorn? Or have our eyes missed them?” This is the discussion of the heirs of the Hell among themselves and it is true.
Say: My mission is only to give warning. There is no god but Allah, who is Sole and Mighty.” (Sad: 62, 63, 64, 65)
“You shall cite, as a case in point, the people of the city to which Our messengers made their way. At first, We sent to them two messengers, but when they rejected them (both) We strengthened them with a third. They said: “We have been sent to you as Apostles.” But the people replied: ‘You are but mortals like yourselves. The Merciful has revealed nothing, you are surely lying.”
They said: ‘Our Lord knows that We are true Apostles. Our only duty is to warn you plainly.’
The people answered: ‘Your presence bodes for us nothing but evil. Will you not take heed? Surely you are great transgressors.’
Thereupon a man came running from the far side of the city. “My People!” he said: “Follow those who have been sent to you. Follow those who ask no reward of you and rightly guided. Why should I not serve Him who has created me and to whom you shall be recalled?
I believe in your Lord, so hear me.
We said to him: ‘Enter Paradise’ and he exclaimed: “Would that my people know how graciously my Lord has been to me, how highly He exalted me!” (Yâ Sin: 13, 27)
“Alas for My bondsmen! They laugh to scorn every Apostle that comes to them.” (Yâ Sin: 30)
“The earth has shone with the Light of her Lord, and the Book is laid open. The Prophets and the witnesses are brought in and all are judged with fairness. None shall be wronged (they will not be tortured)” (Zumar: 69)
“In hordes, the unbelievers are led to Hell. When they draw near, its gates are opened and its keepers have said to them: ‘Did there not come to you apostles of your own who proclaimed to you the revelations of your Lord and forewarned you of this day? ‘Yes, they answer. And thus the promised scourge has smitten the unbelievers.” (Zumar: 71)
“Those who bear the Throne and those who stand around it give glory to their Lord and believe in Him. They implore forgiveness for the faithful saying: ‘Lord, you embrace all things with Your mercy and Your knowledge. Forgive those that repent and follow Your path. Shield them from the scourge of Hell.” (Mü’min: 7)
“One of the Pharaoh’s kinsmen, who in secret was a true believer, said: ‘Would you slay a man merely because he says: “My Lord is God”? He has brought you evident signs from your Lord. If he is lying, may his lie be on his head, but if he is speaking the truth, a part at least of what he threatens will smite you. God does not guide the lying transgressors.” (Mü’min: 28)
“We shall help Our Apostles and the true believers both in this world and on the day when the witnesses rise to testify.” (Mü’min: 51)
“Say! ‘For this, I demand of you no recompense. I ask you only to love and to take care of My Family (Ahl al Bayt). He that does a good deed shall be repaid many times over. God is certainly forgiving and bountiful in His reward.” (Shuara: 23)
“Many a Prophet did We send forth to the ancients, but they scoffed at each Prophet that arose among them.” (Zukhruf: 6, 7)
“Thus, whenever, before you, We sent an apostle to forewarn a nation those who lived in comfort said: ‘This was the faith our fathers practised, we are merely following in their footsteps.” (Zukhruf, 23)
“This is the knowledge which shows the Hour of Doom. Have no doubt about its coming and follow Me. This is the right path.” (Zukhruf: 61)
“Those who swear fealty to you, swear fealty to God Himself. The hand of Allah is above their hands. He that breaks his oath breaks it at his own peril, but he that keeps his pledge to God shall be richly rewarded by Him.” (Feth, 10)
“Allah was well-pleased with the faithful when they swore allegiance to you under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts. Therefore He sent down tranquility upon them, and rewarded them with a speedy victory.” (Feth, 18)
“It is He that has sent forth His Apostle with guidance and the true faith so that he may exalt it above all religions. Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.” (Feth, 28)
“Believers! Do not behave presumptuously in the presence of Allah and His Apostle. Have fear of God because He hears all and knows all.” (Hujurat: 1)
“Believers, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor shout aloud when speaking to him as you do to one another, lest your labours should come to nothing without your knowledge.” (Hujurat: 2)
“Know that God’s Apostle is among you. If he obeyed you in many matters, you would surely fail. But God has bestowed the faith to you and beautified it in your hearts, making unbelief, wrongdoing and disobedience abhorrent to you.” (Hujurat: 7)
“The true believers are those that have faith in God and His Apostle, and never doubt and who fight with their wealth and their persons for the cause of Allah. Such are those whose faith is true.” (Hujurat: 15)
“They marvel that a Prophet of their own has arisen amongst them. The unbelievers say: ‘This is indeed a strange thing.” (Qaf: 2)
“To give a lesson and admonition and to open the eye of the heart of all the penitent men.” (Qaf, 8)
“Each soul shall come attended by one who will drive it on and another to testify against it.” (Qaf, 21)
“By the declining star, your compatriot (Muhammad) is not in error nor is he deceived! He does not speak out of his own fancy. Whatever the Prophet Muhammad (the Perfect Man) says is an inspired revelation. He is taught by one who is powerful and mighty. He stood on the uppermost horizon, then, drawing near, he came down within two bows’ length or even closer and revealed to his servant that which he revealed. His own heart did not deny his vision. How can you then question what he sees? He beheld him once again at the Sidra Tree beyond which no one may pass near it is the Garden of Repose. When that tree was covered with what covered it his eyes did not wonder, nor did they turn aside, for he saw some of his Lord’s greatest signs.” (Najm: 1-18)
You shall not penetrate the skies except with a Perfect Man who bears a Divine (Sultani) Spirit.” (Rahman: 33)
“Have faith in God and His Apostle.” (Hadid: 7)
“We have sent Our Apostles with veritable signs.” (Hadid: 25)
“We sent forth Noah and Abraham and bestowed on their offspring prophethood and the Scriptures. Some were rightly guided, but many were evil-doers.” (Hadid: 26)
“After them We sent other Apostles (our Prophets, Our messengers, Our Perfect Men.” (Hadid: 27)
“Allah has decreed: ‘I will surely triumph, Myself and My Apostles’. Powerful is Allah and mighty.” (Mujadele: 21)
“Allah has inscribed the faith in their own hearts and strengthened them with a spirit of His own.” (Mujadele: 22)
“It is He that has sent forth among the illiterate an apostle of their own to recite to them His revelations, to purify them and to instruct them in the Book and in wisdom, though they have hitherto been in gross error.” (Juma: 2)
They said: “Shall a mortal be our guide (will take us to the right path)?” They disbelieved and became unbelievers. (Teghabun: 6)
“Believers, turn to God in true repentance. Your Lord may forgive you your sins and admit you to gardens watered by running streams, on a day when the Prophet and those who believe with him will suffer no disgrace at the hands of God. Their light will shine in front of them and on their right and they will say: ‘Lord, perfect our Light for us and forgive us. You have power over all things.” (Tahrim: 8)
“NUN” By the pen and what they write, you are not mad: thanks to the favour of your Lord; A lasting recompense awaits you, for yours is a sublime nature. You shall before long see-as they will see-which of you is mad. Your Lord knows best those who are rightly guided. Give no heed to the disbelievers; they desire you to overlook yours. Nor yield to the wretch of many oaths, the mischief making, slanderer, the opponent of good, the wicked transgressors, and the bully who is doubtful birth to boot. Though such a man be blessed with wealth and children, when Our revelations are recited to him, he says: “They are fables of the ancients.” (Kalem: 1-15)
“Your duty is but to warn those that fear Him.” (Naziat, 45)
“When the Apostles are brought together to testify ....” (Murselat: 11)
“For every soul there is a guardian watching it.” (Tariq: 4)
“Happy (saved) shall be the man who purifies himself, who remembers the name of his Lord and prays.” (Âlâ: 14)
“Hüvellezi enzele sekinete ve kûlubi’l Mü’minine liyezdâdu imânen maa imânihim-It was He who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the faithful, so that their faith might grow stronger (increases).” (Fath: 4)
“Yerfellahillezine âmenu-I have raised to high ranks those that have faith and knowledge among you.” (Mujadele: 11)
“Your only protectors (your friend, your beloved) is Allah, His Apostle and the faithful: those who attend to their prayers, render the alms levy, and kneel down in worship.” (Maidah: 55)
“Nahnü evliyâ üküm fil hayati’d dünya vefi’l âhireti-We are your guardians (your friends) in this world and in the hereafter.” (Fussilet: 31)
“Is he whose heart Allah has opened to Islam that he is on a path lighted from his Lord, like the man whose heart is sealed? Those whose hearts are against the remembrance of Allah are in grossest error.” (Zumar: 22)
“God has now sent down to you an apostle proclaiming to you the revelations of Allah in all plainness, so that he may lead the faithful who do good works from darkness to the light.” (Talaq: 11)
“THEY ARE PLEASED WITH ALLAH AND ALLAH IS PLEASED WITH THEM.” (Maidah, 119)
- “Kur’an-ı Hakim ve Meal-i Kerim” by Hasan Basri Çantay, vols. 1-2-3
- “Kur’an-ı Kerim ve Yüce Meâli” by Prof. Dr. Süleyman Ateş
- “Sırrül Esrar” by “Sayyid Abdülkadir Geylani” trans. by A. Akçiçek Rahmet Publications
- “Onların Alemi” by Ahmed el Rufai
- “Müsned” by Ahmed b. Hanbel
- “Tecri-i Sarih” by Bukhari trans. by DIB Publications
- “İhyau Ulumi’d Din” by M. Ghazzali
- “Sünen” by Ibn Mâce
- “Sünen” by Nesâi
- “Şerhüş Şifa” by El Kaari
- “Cabir” by Thirmizi
- “Mezhepler Tarihi” by M. Ebu Zehra
- “Mektubat-Sözler-Hakikat Nurları” by M. Said-i Nursi
- “Hz. Peygamberin Dilinden Dört Halifesi” by İmran b. Hüseyin
- “İslâm Tarihi, Hz. Muhammed ve İslamiyet” by M. Asım Köksal
- Tefsinu’t Taberi-Tefsiru İbn Kesir
- “Imam Jafer” by M. Ebu Zehra
- “Kelam İlminin Belli Başlı Meseleleri” by Prof. Taftazani
- “Tac Tercümesi” by Bekir Sadak
- “Binbir Hadis” by Şemseddin Yeşil
- “Ariflerin Menkibeleri”, trans. by Tahsin Yazıcı MEB Publ.
- “Varlık (Existence)”
“İslâm’da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş (The Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending)”
“Günahsızlar (The Sinless)”
“İslâm’da Yükselme (Ascension in Man)”
“Muhammed-İsa-Adem (Muhammad-Jesus-Adam)” by KÂZIM YARDIMCI
- Tefsir 12
- Yaşar Nuri Öztürk - Eserleri
THE LIST OF THE BOOKS WRITTEN BY THE WRITER AND PUBLISHED IN TURKEY
1- Varlık (Existence) 1974 İstanbul
2- İslâm'da Mezhepler ve Yükseliş (Religious Sects in Islam and Ascending) 1988 İzmir
3- Günahsızlar (The Sinless)1992 Malatya
4-İnsanda Yükselme (Ascension in Man)1992 Malatya
5- Muhammad -İsa -Adem (Muhammad-Jesus-Adam)1993 Malatya
6-İslâm'da Şeriat ve Tarikat (Shariat and Tariqat in Islam)1996 Alanya
7-İslâm Ekonomisi (Islamic Economy)1997 Malatya
WRITTEN BY KAZIM YARDIMCI
TRANSLATED BY H. NALAN ŞEHİRLİOĞLU