The truth is; the origin of Alawis in Turkey is Jafari Order. They are of Turcoman and Yoruk origin. Turcomans and Yoruks are partly Hanafi and partly Jafaris same as the Turcomans of Kirkuk at present. They are also half Hanafi and half Jafaris.
Why is it like this? It is like this because Turks were under the influence of Hanafi sect that had come from Abbasid, and the religious doctrine of Jafaris that had come from Iran. The Turks-Turcomans and other branches of Turkish tribes who met Persian Jafaris learnt religion from Persian Jafaris, and the Turks that met Abbasid Hanafis learnt religion from Hanafis. This is a historical fact. This is the situation of Azari Jafaris and of other Jafaris in Turki States. That is to say, the entire of Turks are not Hanafis.
Now, after having made this introduction, I will objectively explain what Jafari Sect (Shiism), Hanafi-Shafii Sects (Sunni Branches of Islam) are and are not as well as the Alawism in Turkey today and what stages has our Alawi brothers passed in Turkey, depending on evidences. For, if the truth is not known, the Alawi matter in Turkey cannot be known and if it is not known, the true way of solving it cannot be found. I hope I will clarify these subjects in the name of Allah, of the Prophet and Shah-i Walayat (Hz. Ali).
My brothers, the truth is: Four Sects (Hanafi, Shafii, Maliki, Hanbali), the sects of Islamic canonical Jurisprudence, and Ashari and Maturidy sects that are based on belief were founded and became official during Abbasid’s time. Jafari, Zaydi and Ismaili sects were formed again during Abbasid’s time, however, they could not become official because Abbasid Sultans did not accept these three sects legal and they even took them under prosecution. However, these three sects did not cease but protected themselves.
Afterwards, when Jafarism was separated from Abbasid, when the Persian Government was established, it became official in Iran and it was institutionalized and became official in India, Afghanistan and in Turkish regions by Turkish Emperors, Harizam Shahs.
Although Ismaili sect had not become official around India and Pakistan, it maintained its institutionalized existence openly or secretly.
As for Zaydi Sect, it was founded in Yemen and afterwards, it became official. (The reason why they all resisted against Ottomans, you may call it “a rebellion” in Yemen is because they were Shiites.)
They had neither accepted the Caliphate of Umayyad nor of Abbasids and of Ottomans (like Iran and Arab-Turkish Turcoman Shiites). They did not accept, and they could not accept it. Why?
The reason why is: According to Shiite Sects, the first three Caliphs, Hz. Abu Baqir, Omar and Osman, were not the Caliphs of the Prophet. In this situation, how will they accept the Caliphates of the Umayyad, Abbasids and Ottoman Caliphates that come from Sultan Selim.
According to Hasan al Ashari, the leader of Ashari school that was founded during Abbasid era- which was accepted by most of the Hanafi and Shafii Ulamas as the belief of the People of Sunnat-, the Caliphate of the first four caliphs was true. Hz. Zubayr, Talha and Aysha had been wrong towards Hz. Ali. However, they understood their mistake and apologized. However, Muawiyah and Amr ibni As were cruel, wicked rebellions and plot-makers. Hasan al Ashari said: “They rebelled against such a true Imam (Hz. Ali) that the truth never leaves him (Hz. Ali). Haq is with Ali.” (Thirmizi, Tac Transl. vol.3, p.627 / Suyuti, from Abu Said Camiulkebir)
Our Prophet (S. A.V.) also said, “Ammar (Ammar bin Yasir, who was the sixth of the first Muslims and the son of the first woman martyr Hz. Sumayya) will certainly be murdered by those who are rebellious and cruel.” The Umayyad- Muawiyah and Amr Ibni As supporters- murdered Ammar bin Yasir because he was in favor of Hz. Ali. The saying of our Prophet had been proved and the cruel and wicked plotters became obvious.
So, my brothers, the two rebels, wicked and cruel people, who rebelled against such a pure Hz. Imam, the true Caliph of the Prophet, against the pure Ahl al Bayt that were written in the Koran as pure and innocent, were the two plotters called Muawiyah and Amr ibni As, whom Ashari also qualified as rebellious and cruel. If I say this, they will not believe it but as you see, Imam Ashari , whom the people of Sunnat accept as the imam of belief, said it.
(Şehristani; Elmilel p.3, Taftazani “Kelam İlminin Belli Başlı Meseleleri” written by Dr. Ebul Vefa El Taftazani, p.87, translated by Doç. Dr. Şerafettin Gölcük, Kayhan Yayınevi, Umumi Neşriyat, no.9 First edition January 1980)
According to Madrasa Ulamas after Sultan Selim or according to Sheihk ul Islams, the first four Caliphs are true. They ordained all things rightly. They were perfect, mature caliphs. The Umayyad rulers including Muawiyah, Yezid and Marwan were also the caliphs of the Prophet. Abbasid Sultans were also the Caliphs of the Prophet. Selim, and the Ottoman Sultans after him were also the caliphs of the Prophet. However, they were not righteous, perfect caliphs. They lacked some qualities but they were the caliphs. However, our Prophet said. “The Caliphate will last 30 years after me and than a rapacious king will come.” (From Said b. Cumhan; Abu Davud, Thirmizi, Nesei, tac Transl. vol.3, p.79 Bekir Sadak İst. 1973 See also Bukhari and Tecridi Sarih transl. by Diy, İşl. Bşk.)
According to Abbasids, the Umayyad and their kings were not only false caliphs but they were also atheist, cruel and hypocrite. They had already ruined the Umayyad state and put them to sword, as they were disbelievers. He who destroyed the Umayyad State was the first Abbasid Sultan Hz. Ebul Abbas, who was one of the descendants of Hz. Abbas. However, Abu Jafer Mansur and other Abbasid Sultans who succeeded Abul Abbas also hurt Imam Muhammad Baqır, Jafari Sadıq, Musa i Kazım and Ali Riza as well as their descendants. Their aim was to be in power though they were Hz. Ali’s descendant and his cousins.
According to Jafaris and Ismailis, the caliphate of the first three caliphs was not true. They had taken the right of Hz. Ali from him. However, the first three caliphs were believers. They were also the Companions of the Prophet. They neither curse them nor love them. Their evidence is the holy saying of the Prophet: “Whoever I am the master of, Ali is also his master”(A Sacred Hadith from Hz. Anas, Zayd bin Erkan, Cerir Habeshi and Ammar, Musned by Ahmed b. Hanbel, vol.4, p .281. See also From Sa’d b. Ubeyde, he transmitted from Ibn-i Bureyde, he transmitted from his father; see also Musned by Ibn-i Abbas 5, 350,358,361; Thirmizi 5, 633 see also Islam Tarihi M. Asım Köksal vol.8, p. 195) and the 33 rd verse of Chapter Ahzab about the superiority of Ahl al Bayt in the Koran: “Allah purified Ahl al Bayt Himself”.
A VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: “Allah personally purified Ahl al Bayt from the dirtiness of the self.”
The verse about Ahl al Bayt written in Chapter Ahzab is the confirmation, proof of the superiority of AHL AL BAYT OF MUHAMMAD.
Ahl al Bayt was regarded more superior than all the people in this way.
The salawats (salawat: the formula calling God’s benediction on the Prophet (A.S.V.)) “Allahumme Salli, Allahumme Barik”, which all the Muslims including the Companions and the Friends of God -Muslim saints- have to recite during the five prayers of the day (salat-namaz) are the proof or confirmation of this. The prayer (namaz) of a person that does not recite the salawat on the Prophet and His Ahl al Bayt is not considered as namaz. The word “Al-i” in Arabic is the abbreviated form of the word “Ahl al Bayt”. The Arabs say “Al-i Muhammad” abbreviating the word “Ahl al Bayt”. The only difference is Al-i Muhammad (Ahl al Bayt- the immediate family of the Prophet (A.S.)-) are not Prophets. They are the exalted Friends of God (Muslim Saints) who are the closest ones to Allah.
For, Allah the Almighty purified the Ahl al Bayt of Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V.) personally same as the Prophets purified other people.
“İnnema yürudillahi liyüzhibe ankümürricse EHLELBEYTİ ve yütehhireküm tethira.” (Al-Azhab, 33)
The above glorious verse is the definite proof and witness that Ahl al Bayt was purified by Allah the Almighty Himself.
The people whom Allah the Almighty purified personally are the Prophets and also Ahl al Bayt (the immediate family of Hz. Muhammad (S.A.W.)) The 33rd verse about Ahl al Bayt in Chapter Azhab is the proof and witness of this. Others are purified from the dirtiness of the self by the Prophets and the Friends of God (The Perfect Men who joined Allah in the spirit).
The following holy verse is the confirmation and proof of it:
“We have sent forth to you an apostle (a Prophet, a Perfect Man) of your own who will recite to you Our revelation and purify you of sin (purify you from the dirtiness of the self and wickedness), who will instruct you in the Book and Wisdom and teach you that of which you have no knowledge.” (Al-Baqarah, 151)
Therefore, in Iran and in Jafaris, there is nobody called as Abu Baqir, Omar and Osman.
The situation of Zaydi Shiites is different. According to them, the Prophet (A.S.) left the Imamate-Caliphate to Hz. Ali and his descendants. This will be like this until the Day of Resurrection. They do not limit the Imamate-Caliphate like Jafaris who are the Twelvers Shiis. The caliphates of Hz. Abu Baqir, Omar and Osman are permitted for a good cause.
According to Imam Zayd, the eldest son of Hz. Zaynal Abidin, Hz. Ali is the most virtuous caliph. The other three caliphs are also virtuous personalities. They were the close Companions of the Prophet. They asked Hz. Zayd: “Is the caliphate of the virtuous proper while there is the most virtuous one? Hz. Imam Zayd said: “It may become proper for a good cause.” Zaydis call their children with the names Abu Baqir, Omar and Osman. They do not look like Persian Shia.
The Ismaili Shiites know the six of the Twelve Imams true. They call themselves Ismailis saying the Imamate-Caliphate passed to Ismail, who died before Hz. Sadıq, after Jafari Sadıq. They do not accept the Imamate of Hz. Musa-i Kazım. When they are asked to whom the Imamate passed after Hz. Ismail, they say the Imamate was hidden. They keep the spiritual Imam secret and interpret the religion hundred percent inwardly.
Whereas, religion can also be interpreted outwardly as well as it can be interpreted inwardly. Ismailis are also called as Batinites.
The Jafaris who are the Persian Shia know the 12 Imams as imams but they do not know the three caliphs as imams-caliphs. They know the religion completely external and interpret it externally. They are a kind of externalists. For example, according to Persian Jafari sect, there is only Sharia. There are not any tariqat-sheikh and tekke. They do not believe in spiritual progress or journey, which is spiritual purification, and the relation between sheikh-pir, the perfect man and aspirants and darwish-adherent and the spiritual connection with the spirit of the Perfect Man in Sufism. Sufism is not an event but a thought for them. According to them Sufism is culture, literature and not Islamic. They do not believe in Spiritual journey and spiritual connection same as our most of Madrasa Ulamas and Wahhabis. They do not accept Sufism as the doctrine of religion. They interpret religion externally. They are a kind of rationalists and do not believe in divine revelation. They believe in logical deduction.
There are not any tekkes in Iran and there had not been any. There were some but in the Sunni sects. Ayatollahs do not accept them because Jafari sect is based on only shariat. You can read the information I have given about religious sects in details in the book called “Mezhebler Tarihi” by Muhammad Abu Zehra, published by Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı. You can also read the imamate section in the books “Kelam Meseleleri” by Taftazani who spread Ashari Sect and in “Mezhepler ve Yükseliş” written by us and in our other books. You can also read the article “Religious Commentaries after the Prophet” in our website: www.varliktanveriler.com.
Brothers! After presenting you the above information about Islamic religious sects basing on the sources, let us come to “Alawism in Turkey”.
What is “Alawism” in Turkey today? Which sect is it sourced from? Which is its origin? As it is known and as I explained about, some of the Turks and Turcomans had taken religion from Abbasid religious interpreters (From four Mujtehids, Abu Hanifa-Numan bin Sabit, Muhammad Shafii, Malik and from Ahmed bin Hanbel), from Abbasid, Asharite and Maturidy and from Sufi scholars, who are called as the People of Sunnat-Sunnis. Some of them had taken it from Persian Jafaris and Jafari Ulamas, who were accepted by Turkish Kings-Harizam Shahs. That is to say, all of the Turks are not Sunnis or Shiites. For example, there are Azari Shiis, Kirkuk Turcoman (Iraqi) Shiis. Nobody can object to what I have written as they are historical and present realities.
Now, I am declaring: The origin of the scientific sect of Alawis in Turkey is Isna Ashariya (The Twelve Imams) and this is seen neither in Zaydis nor in Shiites and Ismaili Shiites. Jafari sect is already based on the 12 Imams. (See “Mezhepler Tarihi” by Abu Zehra Diy. İşl. Bşk. Publ.)
However, the Alawis in Turkey believe in the 12 Imams. They come from the belief of the 12 Imams. None of our Alawi Brothers makes an oath on the head of the 12 Imams and Jafar al Sadıq (A.S.) and says that he is never a Jafari or the Twelver. If there is a person, let him say it. Let 10 Jafari Dedes come up and let them say, “We are not Jafaris” making an oath on Ahl al Bayt. Then, it means that I am wrong and I will give up what I say if any of them does this.
Their origin is based on the Twelve Imams. Even, Mustafa Timisi, the Chairman of “Birlik (Unity) Party”, who founded the party referring to the 12 Imams, applied to Constitutional Court and requested Jafari Sect to be accepted and the Constitutional Court decided “A new Sect cannot be re-established, whatever comes from History in Turkey, it is.” There are not religious sects in Islam but there is ijtihad and mujtehid. Brothers, everyone accepts or does not accept the ijtihad he likes. He is free of his choice.
In Islam, there is ijtihad, therefore it continues and cannot be limited by three, four or five. If there is no ijtihad, fanaticism starts and the religion and nation cannot develop. One of the reasons of our retrogression lies in this fact. Well-known sheikhulislam fetwas: “THE GATE OF IJTIHAD IS CLOSED! (it means that there is no longer any room for innovation (in establishing a religious precedent)” Here you are! See our weary condition and desperate struggling! They are already apparent.
Ijtihad and fetwa have become to express opinions nowadays. Fetwa and expressing opinions is not IJTIHAD. IJTIHAD MEANS TO MAKE JUDGEMENTS AGAIN ON EACH MATTER WITHOUT BEING CONTRARY TO THE BOOK AND SUNNAT (ORIGIN). Ijtihad cannot be made by two or three people’s getting together. Mujtehid is only one person and he is independent. He is a pious scholar and theologian who is admired by Muslims.
While the origin of Alawis is based on the 12 Imams or Jafari Branch, why did they enter Bektashi Tariqat? WHY DID THEY SAY WE ARE “ALAWIS”?
The reason of it is deep and political. Who started the Turcoman, Shii rebellion in the leadership of Dede Ishak in the last times of Seljuks? Nobody can say that Iran Shiite State has no function in it. Dede Ishak was the friend and the teacher or the sheikh of Hadji Bektash. However, later Hadji Bektash had left Ishak Dede. He moved to a remote small village far from the cities in order to get rid of the pursuit of Seljuk rulers (it is the town called Hacıbektaş at present) and he made conversations on Sufism just like Yunus Emre. He was not an action man but he was a Sufi, who devoted himself to God, being away from actions. Afterwards Bektashi Order was institutionalized in the name of him. He was called as Pir-sheikh Hadji Bektashi Veli and he was accepted as the sheikh of the derwish order.
In fact, Bektashi order is an Ottoman tariqat. Many kings belonged to Bektashi Order including Murat II. That is to say, Bektashi Branch is a tariqat and involved in Sufism. Its books (Velayatname and Menakib) confirm this. During the Seljuks, the adherents or the partisans of Dede Ishak were put to swords and they had constantly been under prosecution. Bektashis led a comfortable life during Ottomans and they treated Bektashi tariqat well. However, when Sultan Selim took the false caliphate from Abbasids and declared himself the caliph of the Prophet, he wanted to reduce the number of the sects to one because he was angry with Shah Ismail. He prohibited other sects except Hanafi Sect in Ottoman lands with a fatwa of Hodja Nasruddin called as Hoca-i Sultan, the writer of Tacitevarih, (one of the publications of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs), and thousands of Turcoman Shii Jafaris were killed in the events that started due to this. There is no historian that does not know why Kuyucu Murat was called as “kuyucu (well-digger)”.
Afterwards, Shafii sect was permitted but the official sect has always been “Hanafi Sect” since the Abbasids (It was the same in Ottomans). Shah Ismail also destroyed large numbers of Sunnis in Iran. Selim and Ismail was of Turkish origin. They were both Turkish. The purpose of their battles was to conquer the world. Sunnism and Shiism were used by both of them.
After these events, Turcoman Jafaris abandoned cities and moved to mountains. The lines of Dadaloglu, who was a Shii Jafari, “If the commands are the King’s, mountains are ours” are known by everybody. What happened after they had moved up on the mountains? They strayed away from Bektashi Babagan class; and Bektashi Dedegan system was established. They were deprived of schools and madrasas (Jafari Madrasas and teaching) on the mountains for centuries. There are no Jafari mosques and Jafari Madrasas on the mountains anymore. They have lived in the villages at the mountains for centuries and for today. They have been urbanized recently. The need for “Cem evleri” was started due to this urbanization; for, they used to have Ayini-Cem in the village houses under the supervision of Beqtashi Dedes. By this way, they have forgotten Jafari teaching, which was their main source and a scientific ijtihad. Today, if you ask any Alawi Brother, by making him swear on Ahl al Bayt, he says, “I am a Jafari”, however; if you ask the principles of Jafari creed, he does not know them.
Then, what is the situation of our Twelver Alawi brothers on the mountains? When they were deprived of Jafari culture, which is the sect of their ancestors, they were open to all the opinions and were inspired by them, except Ahl al Sunnat Sects. For instance, today’s Alawi brothers do not deny Shariat. They know that Pir Sultan Abdal is a Jafari scholar and poet who accepted Shariat. They know four doors and forty stages (maqams) reality and say “shariat, tariqat, gnosis and reality” are true. However, they interpret Shariat inwardly different from Jafaris and Hanafis that interpret it outwardly.
Sufis also accept religion as seen and unseen and they bring inward interpretations to it. Our Alawi brothers accept a Batinite doctrine between Sufis inward interpretation and Ismailis Batinite interpretation. Alawism is Islamic. They say the greatest Muslim and Muhammedan is Shah i Walayat Hz. Ali, the Friend of God. This is accepted by all the Alawis who did not approach materialism. I have already told sufficiently why they accepted Dedegan System of Bektashi order.
For, it is confirmed that Hz. Hadji Bektashi Veli and Hz. Yunus are never from Persian Jafari Sects. It is, I mentioned above, taking shelter in Bektashi order, which is an Ottoman tariqat. Then, why did they qualify themselves as Alawi besides this. There are two explanations of it:
One of them is mystical; the other one is because of necessity.
When Sultan Selim got angry with Shah Ismail and decreased the number of sects to one and prohibited Jafari and Shii orders except Janafi sect, and when admitting “I am a Jafari or a Shii” was accepted unlawful, our intelligent Alawi brothers escaped from beating saying “We are Alawis and we are Kızılbaş” because Sultan Selim also himself used to say that he was an Alawi and he used to grow Haydari moustache. Even today, some of our politicians and some of Sunni theologians say “we are Alawis, we like Hz. Ali, we are all Alawis”. Even Saidi Nursi Efendi also said: “I attained the munificence of Alawism.” Fethullah Gülen Hoca also did not hesitate to say or beware of saying: “I am also an Alawi” when it was required again in again.
For, Alawism means to follow the path of Hz. Ali and to love Ahl al Bayt. Hz. Ali was the door of Divine Knowledge, the Head of Hz. Muhammad’s pure family and his path is the path of the Prophet Hz. Muhammad (A.S.).
The title “Kızılbaş” had come from Uhud Battle. Sufyanis wore a purple turban on their heads and Muhamedis-Muslim soldiers wore a red turban on their heads at the battle. That is why Sufyanis and Meccan polytheists called Muslims as “Kızılbaş”. “Altuğ” also means “red-headed”.
Ottoman Emperors did not get angry at the words “Alawi and Kızılbaş”. It was a word that Turcoman, Jafari Shiis found cleverly. What is not accepted after Sultan Selim was not “Alawism”. It was Shiism, Jafarism because these two words reminded Persian Shia. Therefore, the prohibition was not religious but for political reasons.
What happened afterwards? Afterwards, brothers, Mahmut II prohibited Bektashi order as well. During Abdulaziz, this prohibition was abolished. Bektashi tekkes and Cem Houses were re-opened. This time, when the Committee of Union and progress gave priority to Bektashi order and wore Bektashi moustache (they were already the strongest opponents of Abdulaziz II), they were closed by Abdulhamit and Naqshibendi sheihks were appointed to Bektashi tekkes. Bektashi supported the Committee of Union and Progress as they promised them freedom. These Bektashi tekkes were re-opened after the declaration of Monarchy. Alawism was insulted and slandered by the mullahs who were from Babımeşihat, saying “They are not Alawis, such an Alawism is impossible”. They slandered them unjustly. They created an allergy on the word “ALAWI” that was even accepted by Selim II.
This is the adventure and tragic situation of our Alawi Brothers. They were not at ease until the Monarchy and the declaration of our Republic. They have been free since 1908 and 1923. There is no governmental pressure on them. They have no anxiety anymore.
There is also an Alawism in Sufism (tariqat). It was sourced from this: Our exalted Prophet (A.S.) taught spiritual divine knowledge-Gnosis- to Hz. Ali (k.v.) from his Ahl al Bayt and to Hz. Abu Bakir (R.A.) from his Companions. These two great personalities are accepted as the two great divine doors (the door of passing to spirituality-divine world) of our Prophet
Our Masters Hasan and Husayn and Hasan al Basri Hz. learnt this divine path from Hz. Ali, and Marufu Kerhi, Sırri Saqati and Junaydi Baghdadi schools were opened by means of them. The former Sufis called all the branches that come from them “Alawism” and they called the adherents of them “Alawis”. The classical name of them is “Turuku Alaviye-Alawi paths”.
Selmanı Farisi and Kasım bini Muhammed (the grandsons of Hz. Abubaqir) learnt this path of divine knowledge from Hz. Abubaqir and it passed to Jafar al Sadıq from them it passed to Beyazidi Bistami, Yusufu Hamedani and Abdulhaliqi Gucduvani. Ahmed Yesevi also belonged to Yusufu Hamedani Sufism School (divine path). If Hz. Hadji Beqtash Wali had not been an adherent of the path of Baba Ishak, but, an adherent of Ahmed Yesevi School (that the Narratives and Legends of Muslim Saints emphasize that Hadji Beqtash Wali had been the adherent of Ahmet Yesevi Sufism School), in this case, it would mean that Hadji Beqtash Wali had also belonged to the mystical path of Hz. Abu Baqir.
Former Sufis called them as Baqris. All the rest of the paths come from the great Sufi called Abdulhaliki Gucduvani.
All the Sufi Sheikhs that had been the adherents of Yusufu Hamedani School are “Baqris”. In other words, they were connected with Hz. Abubaqir. Muhammad Naqshibendi also belonged to Yusufu Hamedani Sufism School. The classical name of them is “Turuku Bekriye-Bakri paths”.
Here “Alawism-Bekrism” is a mystical classification and naming. The history of Sufism and biographies of saints and the narratives prove this. They have no relation with Alawism in Turkey. I have already explained Alawism in Turkey and why they call themselves as “Alawis” sufficiently. Our Turcoman Jafari Shii Brothers who became a stranger of Jafari culture has only one truth in their hands. Alawis love Muhammad Ali Aba (Our pure Ahl al Bayt Masters: Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn) heartily. I know some of them are in love with them. They also mourn for Hz. Husayn, the great Sayyid, Martyr, the Friend of God, the beloved of our Prophet (A.S.), the martyr of Karbala, the savior of Religion, our dear master, our savior, the martyr of freedom. They do not have anything else besides it.
Their devotion to Ali Aba and keeping mourning for Imam Husayn is more than enough for them to be saved at the presence of “Allah and His Prophet” to please them.
Brothers! I have explained all these with all my sincerity as a person who is of Hanafi origin, who knows Arabic grammar well at the same time as a Sufi Alawi. Abu Hanifa is the aspirant and student of Jafar al Sadıq (A.S.). All the Hodjas and Dedes know this because I am an Alawi who is attached to Junayd al Bagdadi Sufi School. Junaydism in Sufism means mystical ALAWISM.
Alawism in Turkey exists in none of the countries in the world. Our Alawi brothers are only the passionate lovers of Muhammad Ali Aba-Ahl al Bayt and the ones who mourn and weep for our master Hz. Husayn. According to the 8th Ahl al Bayt Imam they are the orphans of Ahl al Bayt. They are entrusted to Ahl al Bayt. Whoever hurts them hurts Ahl al Bayt. They have a musical instrument called “saz” but none of the Alawis plays it for entertainment, they play sad melodies.
They are the divine breaths and hymns and a whirling dance. “Whirling in an ecstatic state is worship.” A whirling dance cannot be performed without instrument (saz). It is just like the whirling dance of Mawlawis. Whirling, chanting and praying accompanied by saz is “the ceremony of worship”. How can they perform their worship if there are not any “cem evi-dervish meeting houses for religious music and worship”? Because of these true reasons, the official acceptance of the cem evis as a place of worship, which is the inevitable right of at least 8-10 millions Beqtashi Alawi Brothers, is necessary. This is our judgment and opinion pertaining to conscience.
I am including the verses of the Koran, hadiths and religious sources as footnotes about what I have written and I kiss all my Alawi and Sunni brothers from their eyes and I expect your prayers. We are all Muslims, Muhammadis. However, the greatest Muhammedi, the gate to the knowledge-all the beauties are acquired with knowledge- is Hazret, the greatest Shah, our Master Aliyyul Murtaza Veliyullah. May Allah forgive and mercy us for the sake of the greatest Muhammadi pir, our shah Hz. Ali (k.v), for his descendants, for Ahl al Bayt and may He protect us from duality by enabling us unity and cooperation! The aim in Islam is not to make one, two; but to make two, “one”.
ALL IS ONE ALLAH IS ONE
Footnote 1: There have never been fights and battles between Sunnis and Alawis in Anatolia because of Sunnism and Alawism. Whatever occurred in history is done by politicians.
Footnote 2: I present you my spiritual identity that I expressed in a few lines in 1978 in Adıyaman.
OUR SPIRITUAL IDENTITY, OUR ATTACHMENT
Thank Allah we are the people of the Koran.
We are Muslims, keeping our first word.
We have not become one of the hypocrite Sufyanis.
We are from Muhammadans.
With Ali, Abu Bakr, Omar and Osman, outwardly and inwardly.
Muawiyah and Marwan are two mischief-makers, canonically,
But we are real Alawis, eternally…
Damn Shimir and Yazid!
We are HUSAYNIS, enduring suffering.
We are the adherents of Ali Muhammad,
We are the Jafaris like Abu Hanifa…
We know that Abu Bakr is the Friend of the Prophet.
But we are the servants of the King of the Sanctity.
We do not have a sheikh in the outer world,
We are attached directly to the Person of RUFAI…
28 July 1978 / ADIYAMAN
And our confession (declaration) is the CONFESSION of the Sufi Poet Sheikh Galip, the writer of “Hüsn-ü Aşk”:
“We die for our confession, we are strongly devoted to our oath.
We are the servants of Shahi Walayat, at the same time, Alawis.”
(By Sheikh Galip)
(See the book called “Şeyh Galip Hayatı, Sanatı, Şiirleri” prepared by Prof. Abdulbaki Gölpınarlı, Varlık Yayınları, Sayı (issue) 162, March, 1953)
My own opinion about the world is: I am a Turk who was born in a family, which is of Hanafi origin and speak Turkish with Adıyaman Turkish accent. I was born in the Central Musalla District of Adıyaman in 1936.
“I am a retired civil servant paid 650 YTL monthly. I have always been in favor of labor and oppressed people. I am a 50 years’ Sufi Muslim socialist who knows that capitalism serves for imperialism. I am a poor brother of you who believes in social democracy. I declare this to you openly and sincerely. I love all of you, all the human beings, mankind, Adam and his children.
"I am evident with my absence; I belong to (the family of the Prophet) Ahl al Bayt,
In the form of my prostrating, my witness is the name of MUHAMMAD"
Footnote 3: Let nobody teach Alawism to Alawis and Hanafi Sect to Hanafis in Turkey. I think that I have explained Alawism-Shiism, Hanafi Branch and Sunnism as much as I can. Both of them are based on Muhammadi belief, the love for Ahl al Bayt and Islam. There are differences of interpretation. Each interpretation belongs to the person himself. It is not correct to interfere to them from outside. We must altogether support Anatolian people, Republic, which is a blessing of Allah and defend social democracy and freedom, which is favorable for our country.
SINCERE PIETY IS NOT POSSIBLE IN A PLACE WHERE THERE IS NO REPUBLIC AND FREEDOM. The most important point of it is even if democracy sometimes goes, it comes back; but if Republic ever goes, (May Allah protect it!) it never comes back. Then we start to cry beating our hands on our knees and we become slaves.
(*)There is a very important hadith (tradition) about the Family of the Prophe, who are confirmed as Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn, in the book called "Müsned" written by Imam-ı Ahmed bin Hanbel.
This tradition was told by our mother Ümmü Seleme, who was an innocent and honest wife of the Prophet Muhammad, as follows:
Ümmü Seleme said: "I was busy with my worship in my room when the Prophet's daughter Fatima entered the room, she kissed the Prophet's hand and sat in front of him. Then, her husband Ali came in and sat next to her. Their sons Hasanand Husayn followed them and sat in the presence of the Prophet. The Prophet had a coarse, red woolen cloak knitted from camel wool and was sent to him from Yemen. He put it on them. Just then, Gabriel came and read the following verse from the Sura Ahzab to the Prophet:
"İnnema yüridüllahü li yüzhibe ankümürricse ehlel beyti veyütehhireküm tethira - O! The Prophet's Family! God has willed to remove uncleanness from you and to purify you." (Ahzab, 33)
Thereupon, the Prophet raised his hands while the others were still under the cloak around him and prayed: "Oh My God! This is my family, please purify them". He recited this prayer twice. I witnessed this event and asked him: "O, the Prophet! Am I not included in that group?" He answered: "Your destiny is also good."
These four great personalities are called as “Ali Aba”, together with firstly our Prophet (A.S.) and they are the Ahl al Bayt (the immediate family) of the Prophet.
12 FEBRUARY 2007
Note: This article was published in the local newspaper called “ADIYAMAN’DA BUGÜN” between 20th February, 2007 and 23rd February, 2007.
The Turks, like most of the Sunni Hanafi Turcomans as I explained in Alawism in Turkey (1), accepted Hanafi Abbasid religious interpretation. Hanafi Abbasid religious interpretation is as follows:
It is consisted of the interpretations of the four Mujtahids (Hanafi, Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali) that is based on Canonical Jurisprudence, which was formed during Abbasids, and Ashari, Maturidi and Sufi interpretation, which is based on belief. (It is, in other words, Sunni Doctrine). It is a historical fact that the Turks learnt religion from Abbasids but not from the Umayyad. The Sunni creed of the Turks is entirely Hashimid Abbasid religious doctrine. None of the Ottoman Ulamas had an objection to this. They could not object to it because this was an apparent truth.
As I have explained above, not only Hz. Ashary but also Hz. Shafii declared that Muawiyah and Amr ibni As were rebellious, wicked men and they opposed against the true imam Hz. Ali and put their swords against him. Opposing or rebelling against the true imam Hz. Ali means opposing or rebelling against Haq and Islam. Hz. Prophet said: “He who did not know the true imam is accepted as if he died in the time of ignorance”. The sacred saying “The Truth (Haq) is with Ali” is the proof of it.
Abu Hanifa is absolutely the partisan of the descendants of Ali. Hz. Abu Hanifa accepted neither the Caliphate of Umayyads nor the Caliphate of Abbasids. The Abbasid Sultan Abu Jafer Mansur killed Abu Hanifa only for this reason. Abu Hanifa was the aspirant and adherent of the 6th Imam our Master Jafar al Sadıq. The following saying of Hz. Abu Hanifa Numan is well-known:
“Lalekelsenedun, Halekel NUMAN-If I had not lived two years more and had not met Hz. Jafar al Sadıq, I would have been perished.”
It means “I was rightly guided by Hz. Jafar al Sadıq”. The evidences of Hasan al Ashary and Muhammad Shafii are as follows:
“El hakkumael Ali El Aliyyü Mael Hak- The truth (Haq) is with Ali and Ali is with the truth”. (Sacred hadith: from Abu Said Hudri (r.a.), Peygamberin Dilinden Dört Halifesi, A. Fikri Yavuz, p. 259 Sönmez Publ.)
“He who died without knowing the true imam is as if he died in the time of ignorance. In other words, he is a polytheist.”(Sacred Hadith: Buhari, Ahkam 4, Jihad 108; Muslim İmaret 38, Tirmizi, Jihad 29, Nesai Bey’at 34, Abu Davud, Cihad, 86 Mevlana, Mesnevi, vol. 1, part 3325)
“Ammar will certainly be murdered by the rebellious.” (Sacred Hadith: From İkrime R.A.; Buhari, Selat 63, Jihad, 17)
Hz. Ammar was the sixth of the first Muslims. He was the son of the first martyrs of Islam: Yasir and Sumayya. He was the person who made his parents Muslim. Yaser Family was a poor but free family. His title was Ammar bin Yasir (R.A.). Our Prophet (A.S.) would pay him compliments and addressed him as “the son of Sumayya”. He served as a commander on the right or left wing of Hz. Ali during Siffin Battle. Muawiyah had him killed and the identity of the rebellious was known, as written in the above sacred hadiths, and the truth and falsehood became completely distinct in this way. When the prophet (A.S.) heard the murder of Ammar he told the above hadiths: “Ammar will be murdered by the rebels” to Ekrem, the son of Amr ibni As, in Damascus. For this reason, Muawiyah warned Amr ibni As “to hold his son’s tongue as he was telling the hadiths contrary of them”. And Amr ibni As said to Muawiyah: “What can I do for this? My son is telling what he heard from the Prophet. He is a scholar.”
These matters are written openly in the book called “İlmin Beldesi Hazreti Ali” by Necip Fazıl. He explained what had happened to Hz. Ali and Hashimid Family after the Prophet showing evidences. I advise it to be read. Hz. Jafar al Sadıq is also a descendant of Hz. Abubaqir from his maternal side. His origin comes from Hz. Husayn, Hz. Shahi Walayat Aliyyül Murtaza and the Prophet (A.S.) in his paternal side and his genealogy is maternally from Hz. Abubaqir. His mother was the daughter of Kasım bini Muhammad, who was the grandson of Hz. Abu Bakir and she was the wife of the 5th Imam, Imam Muhammad Baqır. Cafar al Sadıq was the son of Imam Muhammad Baqır. I would also like to take the attention of my Sunni and Alawi brothers on this point. At the same time, his grandfather Kasım bin Muhammad left Spiritual Caliphate to Hz. Jafar al Sadıq.
By this way, he combined the spiritual mystical caliphate and imamate that comes from his ancestor Hz. Ali and the spiritual, mystical caliphate that comes from his ancestor Hz. Abu Bakir in his person. He was an exalted, holy, great scholar and a great, wise Sufi. May peace of Allah and of ours be with him!
Our Master Jafer al Sadıq did not establish a religious sect either. He devoted directly to the Koran and the Sunnat of the Prophet. Jafari religious sect was formed by Iranian Ulamas by Ayatollahs. However, it is also a scientific sect because their evidences were first of all the Koran and Sunnat. Their third evidence is the sacred sayings of Ahl al Bayt Imams. Their evidences are three. If they prove the sacred sayings or the words of Ahl al Bayt we, the scholars of the People of Sunnat accept them because the Book and Sunnat is best known by Ahl al Bayt. However, they cannot scientifically prove that all these sayings and words belong to Ahl al Bayt.
There is a reality that Ottomans never accept: According to Persian Jafaris, religion-Islam is consisted only of Shariat. There are not any tekkes or Mysticism. They do not accept the reality of sheikh-aspirant, spiritual guidance and the purification of the self. According to Jafaris, Islam is based on Shariat only. However, there were tekkes and mysticism in Abbasid and Ottomans.
It is also a historical fact that Sufism did not appear from Madrasa. Sufism appeared in tekkes. The History of Turkish Literature confirms it. According to Jafari Ulama, Sufism is a literature, a culture but not a fact or an Islamic reality. Each of Ayatollahs is a mujtahid in Iran. There have been thousands of mujtahids in history and they are still continuing. It was said that Jafari sect was established by Hz. Imam Jafar al Sadıq. If that pure personality had established a religious sect by making an ijtihad, why did they need thousands of Mujtahids in Persian Jafaris then (each Ayatollah is a dozen of Mujtehids)? This also shows that Hz. Jafar al Sadıq did not found a sect by making an ijtihad. He was a holy friend of God, a divine scholar, a true imam of his time who was strongly devoted to the Koran and the Sunnat of his ancestors and acquired his teaching of the Book and Sunnat from the teaching of Hz. Ali.
The true Jafaris are those who follow and obey the path of Hz. Abu Hanifa, who was his aspirant and adherent. They are the people who accept that Jafar al Sadıq was divine and he was the sea of the spiritual and mystical knowledge. I do not say this referring to the followers who obey the juridical ijtihads of Abu Hanifa. I say this for the followers of the path of mystical, spiritual initiation of Abu Hanifa Jafar al Sadıq.
My last word is “In Islam there is no sectarianism but there is ijtihad.”
Muslims are free in accepting the ijtihad they like or not like. Due to this real reason, I would request one thing from my brothers who qualify themselves as Alawis, Bektashis and Hanafis, Sunnis:
You are all Muslims and Mohammedans. The Prophet is Muhammad (S.A.V.). Hz. Ali is the greatest Mohammedan. He is the door of knowledge, the cousin and the eldest son-in-law of the Prophet. I request you not to deal with sectarian strives. Sectarianism leads to fanaticism and causes conflicts. Our religion and Muslims will be effected by this badly. Especially, in this era, sectarianism does not suit Muslims. There had been many events in history and politicians had taken advantages of them and there had been many battles due to this. If politicians had not interfered, the sectarian strives in history would not have happened. Both our Alawi and Sunni brothers -people- are innocent. Those who provoked this conflict were always mullahs, ignorant dedes and politicians.
We are all Muslims, brothers of the same religion. “Believers are brothers so make peace among them.” (The Koran verse)
He who is a human does not make one, two but he makes two, one.
There is a reality that all the Muslim Ulamas and true Sufi scholars accept it: The fundamentals of religion are the realities of faith and belief. In Shariat and in Islamic Canonical Jurisprudence (Islamic Jurisprudence and actions are not the fundamental of religion but they are the subdivisions) the basic is the principles of faith and realities of belief because if a person does not have real faith, there is no use of the principles and deeds. PRIMARY CONDITION IS FAITH.
For the Prophets, the primary condition is also faith. They are the most perfect, most pious believers. Prophethood, apostleship and sanctity are the qualities that Allah the Most High bestowed on them. They are the honors, gifts of Allah to them.
None of the Islamic Mujtahids said “I established a religious sect, come and join my sect and he who does not join my sect is not a Muslim.” They had not said such a thing and they cannot say. If he said he would be exasperated from religion himself. Ijtihads are also subdivisions. Ijtihads are a kind of interpretation of the scholars. The interpretation of each scholar belongs to himself. Everybody is free of his choice in deciding which interpretation or ijtihad of the scholar he will accept or reject. Muslims are free and independent individually. It cannot be by force or pressure. There is no compulsion in Religion.
“La ikrahe fi’ddin-There is no compulsion in Religion.” ( Al-Baqarah, 256)
If he is made to accept by force, (faith is also included in it) then, hypocrisy starts. He who accepts by force is not a Muslim. Our proverb “It is no use forcing it” is well-known.
No matter whichever sect we belong to we are Muslims in origin.
I send all of you my kind regards and wish you goodness, beauties and happiness in this world and in the hereafter and want you to live happily, brotherly and peacefully. I emphasize insistently that you must get rid of the sectarianism and errors that history loaded on your back.
Come along my congenial companions,
Come now and let us be united!
Let us make those who want to take our houses,
our country burst with anger!
Let us make them expect anxiously in vain!
Nice days, happy future….
KAZIM YARDIMCI / ADIYAMAN / TURKEY